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Holidays in the Danger Zone

Author : ,

ISBN10 : 1452953333

Publisher : U of Minnesota Press

Number of Pages : 392

Category : Social Science

Viewed : 533

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Book Summary: Holidays in the Danger Zone exposes the mundane and everyday interactions between two seemingly opposed worlds: warfare and tourism. Debbie Lisle shows how a tourist sensibility shapes the behavior of soldiers in war—especially the experiences of Western military forces in “exotic” settings. This includes not only R&R but also how battlefields become landscapes of leisure and tourism. She further explores how a military sensibility shapes the development of tourism in the postwar context, from “Dark Tourism” (engaging with displays of conflict and atrocity) to exhibitions of conflict in museums and at memorial sites, as well as advertising, film, journals, guidebooks, blogs, and photography. Focused on how war and tourism reinforce prevailing modes of domination, Holidays in the Danger Zone critically examines the long historical arc of the war–tourism nexus—from nineteenth-century imperialism to World War I and World War II, from the Cold War to globalization and the War on Terror.

Reporting from the Danger Zone

Author : Maria Armoudian

ISBN10 : 1317556852

Publisher : Routledge

Number of Pages : 156

Category : Language Arts & Disciplines

Viewed : 1381

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Book Summary: Journalism is a dangerous business when one’s "beat" is a war zone. Armoudian reveals the complications facing frontline journalists who cover warzones, hot spots and other hazardous situations. It compares yesterday’s conflict journalism, which was fraught with its own dangers, with today’s even more perilous situations—in the face of shrinking journalism budgets, greater reliance on freelancers, tracking technologies, and increasingly hostile adversaries. It also contrasts the difficulties of foreign correspondents who navigate alien sources, languages and land, with domestically-situated correspondents who witness their own homelands being torn apart.

Managing Cover Crops Profitably (3rd Ed. )

Author : Andy Clark

ISBN10 : 1437903797

Publisher : DIANE Publishing

Number of Pages : 248

Category : ,

Viewed : 1094

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Book Summary: Cover crops slow erosion, improve soil, smother weeds, enhance nutrient and moisture availability, help control many pests and bring a host of other benefits to your farm. At the same time, they can reduce costs, increase profits and even create new sources of income. You¿ll reap dividends on your cover crop investments for years, since their benefits accumulate over the long term. This book will help you find which ones are right for you. Captures farmer and other research results from the past ten years. The authors verified the info. from the 2nd ed., added new results and updated farmer profiles and research data, and added 2 chap. Includes maps and charts, detailed narratives about individual cover crop species, and chap. about aspects of cover cropping.

The Big Book of Conflict Resolution Games: Quick, Effective Activities to Improve Communication, Trust and Collaboration

Author : Mary Scannell

ISBN10 : 0071743669

Publisher : McGraw Hill Professional

Number of Pages : 240

Category : Business & Economics

Viewed : 1083

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Book Summary: Make workplace conflict resolution a game that EVERYBODY wins! Recent studies show that typical managers devote more than a quarter of their time to resolving coworker disputes. The Big Book of Conflict-Resolution Games offers a wealth of activities and exercises for groups of any size that let you manage your business (instead of managing personalities). Part of the acclaimed, bestselling Big Books series, this guide offers step-by-step directions and customizable tools that empower you to heal rifts arising from ineffective communication, cultural/personality clashes, and other specific problem areas—before they affect your organization's bottom line. Let The Big Book of Conflict-Resolution Games help you to: Build trust Foster morale Improve processes Overcome diversity issues And more Dozens of physical and verbal activities help create a safe environment for teams to explore several common forms of conflict—and their resolution. Inexpensive, easy-to-implement, and proved effective at Fortune 500 corporations and mom-and-pop businesses alike, the exercises in The Big Book of Conflict-Resolution Games delivers everything you need to make your workplace more efficient, effective, and engaged.

The Extractive Zone

Author : Macarena Gómez-Barris

ISBN10 : 0822372568

Publisher : Duke University Press

Number of Pages : 208

Category : Social Science

Viewed : 1946

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Book Summary: In The Extractive Zone Macarena Gómez-Barris traces the political, aesthetic, and performative practices that emerge in opposition to the ruinous effects of extractive capital. The work of Indigenous activists, intellectuals, and artists in spaces Gómez-Barris labels extractive zones—majority indigenous regions in South America noted for their biodiversity and long history of exploitative natural resource extraction—resist and refuse the terms of racial capital and the continued legacies of colonialism. Extending decolonial theory with race, sexuality, and critical Indigenous studies, Gómez-Barris develops new vocabularies for alternative forms of social and political life. She shows how from Colombia to southern Chile artists like filmmaker Huichaqueo Perez and visual artist Carolina Caycedo formulate decolonial aesthetics. She also examines the decolonizing politics of a Bolivian anarcho-feminist collective and a coalition in eastern Ecuador that protects the region from oil drilling. In so doing, Gómez-Barris reveals the continued presence of colonial logics and locates emergent modes of living beyond the boundaries of destructive extractive capital.

Navigation Rules and Regulations Handbook

Author : U.S. Coast Guard

ISBN10 : 1626368899

Publisher : Simon and Schuster

Number of Pages : 224

Category : Sports & Recreation

Viewed : 1167

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Book Summary: For anyone who owns a boat, this is the handbook you need to own. Included are all of the official government rules and regulations that must be followed by anyone out on the water. This book will prepare you for head-on situations, avoiding collisions, using, distress signals, and will inform you of all the up-to-date water regulations. Whether you're in a jam or just relaxing at sea, Navigation Rules will teach and prepare you for anything and everything you may encounter while on your boat.

The Tourism-Disaster-Conflict Nexus

Author : Andreas Neef,Jesse Hession Grayman

ISBN10 : 1787432785

Publisher : Emerald Group Publishing

Number of Pages : 184

Category : Social Science

Viewed : 1532

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Book Summary: Tourism is often seen as the world's peace industry. Yet while tourism may play a major role in post-conflict and post-disaster recovery, the sector can also be a trigger of crisis and disaster. This book examines the complex linkages between tourism, disaster and conflict through a series of case studies drawn mainly from the Asia-Pacific region.

Facial Danger Zones

Author : Rod J. Rohrich,James M. Stuzin,Erez Dayan

ISBN10 : 1684200040

Publisher : Thieme

Number of Pages : 160

Category : Medical

Viewed : 1410

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Book Summary: The definitive one-stop reference on safely navigating highly complex facial anatomy The primary goal of Facial Danger Zones: Staying safe with surgery, fillers and non-invasive devices is to help surgeons achieve optimal results and maximize safe outcomes for a wide array of facial cosmetic procedures. Authored by internationally renowned plastic surgeon Rod Rohrich and distinguished co-authors James Stuzin, Erez Dayan, and E. Victor Ross, this user-friendly book provides multidisciplinary insights and expert knowledge on intricate facial anatomy, navigating safe and dangerous facial zones, and the use of minimally invasive technologies. The book is divided into three sections: Part one provides an overview of facial tissue anatomy and fat compartments, facial nerve danger zones, specific nerve branches, protective measures, and technical dissection considerations for safe facelift surgery. Part two covers fillers and neuromodulators with pearls and in-depth guidance on staying safe using six different facial danger zones. Part three details the safe use of energy-based devices such as ablative and non-ablative lasers, combination chemical peels, radiofrequency, and cryolipolysis. Key highlights Superb facial nerve dissection safety tips for cosmetic procedures such as facelifts Facial danger zones and the prevention and consequences of injury graphically described through cadaver dissections, illustrations, and patient case photographs Visually-rich text describes how to safely and efficaciously administer lasers, chemical peels, noninvasive fat removal, and skin tightening devices More than 20 succinct videos posted online enhance understanding of various safe approaches This remarkable resource is destined to be the trusted, go-to companion for trainee and veteran surgeons who specialize in plastic, facial plastic, dermatologic, oculoplastic, and head and neck surgery, as well as other practitioners who treat these patients.

Advances in Computer Science and Information Technology. Computer Science and Information Technology

Author : Natarajan Meghanathan,Nabendu Chaki,Dhinaharan Nagamalai

ISBN10 : 3642273173

Publisher : Springer

Number of Pages : 567

Category : Computers

Viewed : 805

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Book Summary: The three volume set LNICST 84 - LNICST 86 constitute the refereed proceedings ofthe Second International Conference on Computer Science and InformationTechnology, CCSIT 2012, held in Bangalore, India, in January 2012. The 55 revised full papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed andselected from numerous submissions. The papers are organized in topical sectionson advances in computer science and information technology; and ad hoc andubiquitous computing.

Kidney Disease, An Issue of Physician Assistant Clinics, E-Book

Author : Kim Zuber,Jane S. Davis

ISBN10 : 0323431291

Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences

Number of Pages : N.A

Category : Medical

Viewed : 1486

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Book Summary: Physician Assistant Clinics aims to provide an authoritative and continuously updated clinical information resource that covers all of the relevant PA specialties. Our clinical review articles address the key points, diagnosis, prognosis, clinical management, and complications of disease and techniques, evidence, and controversies in the field. Information for quick reference, as well as in-depth coverage of a topic, is a hallmark of the Clinics’ series. This issue of Physician assistant Clinics, guest edited by Kim Zuber, PA-C and Jane S. Davis, DNP, CRNP, brings together expert PAs, NPs, and MDs to give PAs deep insights into the latest advancements in renal disease and show how they are applicable in practice. Articles in this issue include: Will the Real Kidney Patient Please Stand Up?; Introduction of the Kidney Patient; The Surgical Kidney Patient; CardioRenal: The Pump and the Filter; Dosing the Kidney Patient; ABCs of the ICU; Pediatrics: Forgotten Stepchild of Nephrology; Acute Kidney Injury (AKI); Outpatient Management of the CKD Patient; Nephrolithiasis: The Rolling Stones; Transplant and the New Protocols; Health Disparities in Kidney Disease; and Diet and the Kidney.

Cases on Small Business Economics and Development During Economic Crises

Author : Stephens, Simon

ISBN10 : 1799876594

Publisher : IGI Global

Number of Pages : 280

Category : Business & Economics

Viewed : 357

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Book Summary: Oftentimes, the owners and entrepreneurs whose small businesses are undergoing financial problems suffer high emotional costs. These individuals can experience significant setbacks in their entrepreneurial journeys as well as depression and other negative emotions from the stress of crisis episodes. However, businesses that are in crisis also provide valuable learning opportunities for adapting and changing in order to successfully face future challenging situations. Cases on Small Business Economics and Development During Economic Crises presents a diverse range of perspectives and insights into global developments in entrepreneurship and captures a diverse collection of methodologies and outcomes from various countries in the realm of small business economics and their development. Including case studies that discuss the COVID-19 pandemic, risk management, and entrepreneurial resiliency, this case book serves as an excellent companion for entrepreneurs, small business owners, managers, executives, economists, business professionals, academicians, students, and researchers.

The Natural Canning Resource Book

Author : Lisa Rayner

ISBN10 : 0980060826

Publisher : Lifeweaver

Number of Pages : 202

Category : Cooking

Viewed : 461

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Book Summary: The Natural Canning Resource Book - A guide to home canning with locally-grown, sustainably-produced and fair trade foods By Lisa Rayner Copyright (c) 2010 202 pages. 8 1/2 inches by 11 inches. Color cover. Approx. 500 black and white illustrations. ISBN: 978-0-9800608-2-9 The local foods movement has made home canning popular once again! Farmer’s markets, Community Supported Agriculture projects, urban foraging collectives, permaculture guilds and community gardens are popping up like mushrooms. People who never learned how to preserve food growing up are teaching themselves and learning from old-timers how to can in boiling water baths and pressure canners. The Natural Canning Resource Book fills a major gap in the canning literature. Most published canning recipes require the use of non-organic, refined ingredients like distilled white vinegar, white sugar, corn syrup or commercial pectin containing chemical preservatives. This book explains the science behind USDA canning guidelines and explores how to can foods using healthy, natural ingredients you’ll find at your local farmer’s market, CSA and natural foods grocery, buying club or cooperative. Learn how to: --can fruit & pickles without sugar or sweetened with raw honey, agave syrup, maple syrup, brown rice syrup, barley malt, evaporated cane juice or other unrefined cane sugars. -- pickle vegetables with organic, unpasteurized apple cider vinegar or homemade vinegar. -- can wild and tropical fruits like Oregon grape, Juneberries, elderberries, paw paw & guava. -- gel jams and jellies with homemade pectin extracted from locally grown fruit. -- create your own jam, jelly, fruit butter, pickle, relish, chutney & salsa recipes. -- can foods using a solar cooker. -- create a community canning project or start a community kitchen. -- save money & energy with home canning. -- use European-style canning jars with glass lids & rubber gaskets. -- sell your canned goods at your local farmer’s market or CSA.CSA.

The Explainer

Author : CSIRO Publishing

ISBN10 : 1486300529

Publisher : CSIRO PUBLISHING

Number of Pages : 352

Category : Science

Viewed : 379

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Book Summary: Ever wondered how vaccines work, why whales strand themselves or if luck exists? The Explainer: From Déjà Vu to Why the Sky Is Blue, and Other Conundrums is a collection of around 100 of the best articles published in ‘The Explainer’ and ‘Monday’s Medical Myths’ sections of The Conversation. The book answers questions on everyone's mind about a diverse range of topics, abstract concepts, and popular and hard core science. Sections include: animals and agriculture, body, climate and energy, medical myths, mind and brain, research and technology, and more. Expert authors combine facts, analysis, new ideas and enthusiasm to make often challenging topics highly readable in just a few short pages. This book is for the curious, those with a thirst for answers, and those with a fascination of how phenomena, new technologies and current issues in our daily lives work.

The New Politics of Regionalism

Author : Ulf Engel,Heidrun Zinecker,Frank Mattheis,Antje Dietze,Thomas Plötze

ISBN10 : 1315513757

Publisher : Routledge

Number of Pages : 234

Category : Political Science

Viewed : 1385

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Book Summary: This edited volume approaches regionalism as one potential pattern in a changing global order. Since the end of the Cold War, different forms of territorialization have emerged and we are confronted with an increasing number and variety of actors that are establishing regional projects. This volume offers an innovative contribution to the study of this new complexity by exploring constellations of regional actors, spatial scales and imaginations beyond state-centred perspectives as well as on multiple, often overlapping levels. The chapters analyse the emergence, trajectories and outcomes of regionalisms from the perspective of the Global South, specifically concentrating on regional projects in Latin America and Africa, but also in the Asia-Pacific. They attempt to identify the specific conditions and junctures of different forms of region-making in their external (global) and internal (local/national) dimensions. The volume also places special emphasis on interactions, spatial entanglements and comparisons between regionalisms in different parts of the world. By expanding beyond the perspective of North-South transfers, this book seeks to better understand the dynamics and diversity of interregional interactions. This volume will appeal to scholars of global studies, international political economy, international relations, human geography, and development studies, as well as area studies specialists who focus on Latin America and Africa.

Tourism, Land Grabs and Displacement

Author : Andreas Neef

ISBN10 : 1000381552

Publisher : Routledge

Number of Pages : 256

Category : Business & Economics

Viewed : 1063

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Book Summary: This book examines the global scope of tourism-related grabbing of land and other natural resources. Tourism is often presented as a peaceful and benevolent sector that brings people from different cultural backgrounds together and contributes to employment, poverty alleviation, and global sustainable development. This book sheds light on the lesser known and much darker side of tourism as it unfolds in the Global South. While there is no doubt that tourism has been an engine of economic growth for many so-called developing countries, this has often come at the cost of widespread dispossession and displacement of Indigenous and non-indigenous communities. In many countries of the Global South, tourism development is increasingly prioritised by governments, businesses, international financial institutions and donors over the legitimate land and resource rights of local people. This book examines the actors, drivers, mechanisms, discourses and impacts of tourism-related land grabbing and displacement, drawing on more than thirty case studies from Latin America and the Caribbean, sub-Saharan Africa, South and Southeast Asia, the Middle East and the Southwest Pacific. The book provides solid grounds for an informed debate on how different actors are responsible for the adverse impacts of tourism on land rights infringements, what forms of resistance have been deployed against tourism-related land grabs and displacement, and how those who have violated local land and resource rights can be held accountable. Tourism, Land Grabs and Displacement will be essential reading for students and scholars of land and resource grabbing, tourism studies, development studies and sustainable development more broadly, as well as policymakers and practitioners working in those fields.

The Weaponized Camera in the Middle East

Author : Liat Berdugo

ISBN10 : 1838602747

Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing

Number of Pages : 272

Category : Photography

Viewed : 624

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Book Summary: Drawing on unprecedented access to the video archives of B'Tselem, an Israeli NGO that distributes cameras to Palestinians living in the West Bank, East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip, Liat Berdugo lays out an argument for a visual studies approach to videographic evidence in Israel/Palestine. Using video stills as core material, it discusses the politics of videographic evidence in Israel/Palestine by demonstrating that the conflict is one that has produced an inequality of visual rights. The book highlights visual surveillance and counter surveillance at the citizen level, how Palestinians originally filmed to “shoot back” at Israelis, who were armed with shooting power via weapons as the occupying force. It also traces how Israeli private citizens began filming back at Palestinians with their own cameras, including personal cell phone cameras, thus creating a simultaneous, echoing counter surveillance. Complicating the notion that visual evidence alone can secure justice, the Weaponized Camera in The Middle East asks how what is seen, but also who is seeing, affects how conflicts are visually recorded. Drawing on over 5,000 hours of footage, only a fraction of which is easily accessible to the public domain, this book offers a unique perspective on the strategies and battlegrounds of the Israel/Palestine conflict.

Practical Solar Tracking Automatic Solar Tracking Sun Tracking Автоматическое удержание Солнечная слежения ВС 太陽能自動跟踪太陽跟踪

Author : Gerro Prinsloo,Robert Dobson

ISBN10 :

Publisher : Gerro Prinsloo

Number of Pages : 542

Category : Computers

Viewed : 1661

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Book Summary: This book details Practical Solar Energy Harvesting, Automatic Solar-Tracking, Sun-Tracking-Systems, Solar-Trackers and Sun Tracker Systems using motorized automatic positioning concepts and control principles. An intelligent automatic solar tracker is a device that orients a payload toward the sun. Such programmable computer based solar tracking device includes principles of solar tracking, solar tracking systems, as well as microcontroller, microprocessor and/or PC based solar tracking control to orientate solar reflectors, solar lenses, photovoltaic panels or other optical configurations towards the sun. Motorized space frames and kinematic systems ensure motion dynamics and employ drive technology and gearing principles to steer optical configurations such as mangin, parabolic, conic, or cassegrain solar energy collectors to face the sun and follow the sun movement contour continuously. In general, the book may benefit solar research and solar energy applications in countries such as Africa, Mediterranean, Italy, Spain, Greece, USA, Mexico, South America, Brazilia, Argentina, Chili, India, Malaysia, Middle East, UAE, Russia, Japan and China. This book on practical automatic Solar-Tracking Sun-Tracking is in .PDF format and can easily be converted to the .EPUB .MOBI .AZW .ePub .FB2 .LIT .LRF .MOBI .PDB .PDF .TCR formats for smartphones and Kindle by using the ebook.online-convert.com facility. The content of the book is also applicable to communication antenna satellite tracking and moon tracking algorithm source code for which links to free download links are provided. In harnessing power from the sun through a solar tracker or practical solar tracking system, renewable energy control automation systems require automatic solar tracking software and solar position algorithms to accomplish dynamic motion control with control automation architecture, circuit boards and hardware. On-axis sun tracking system such as the altitude-azimuth dual axis or multi-axis solar tracker systems use a sun tracking algorithm or ray tracing sensors or software to ensure the sun's passage through the sky is traced with high precision in automated solar tracker applications, right through summer solstice, solar equinox and winter solstice. A high precision sun position calculator or sun position algorithm is this an important step in the design and construction of an automatic solar tracking system. From sun tracing software perspective, the sonnet Tracing The Sun has a literal meaning. Within the context of sun track and trace, this book explains that the sun's daily path across the sky is directed by relatively simple principles, and if grasped/understood, then it is relatively easy to trace the sun with sun following software. Sun position computer software for tracing the sun are available as open source code, sources that is listed in this book. Ironically there was even a system called sun chaser, said to have been a solar positioner system known for chasing the sun throughout the day. Using solar equations in an electronic circuit for automatic solar tracking is quite simple, even if you are a novice, but mathematical solar equations are over complicated by academic experts and professors in text-books, journal articles and internet websites. In terms of solar hobbies, scholars, students and Hobbyist's looking at solar tracking electronics or PC programs for solar tracking are usually overcome by the sheer volume of scientific material and internet resources, which leaves many developers in frustration when search for simple experimental solar tracking source-code for their on-axis sun-tracking systems. This booklet will simplify the search for the mystical sun tracking formulas for your sun tracker innovation and help you develop your own autonomous solar tracking controller. By directing the solar collector directly into the sun, a solar harvesting means or device can harness sunlight or thermal heat. This is achieved with the help of sun angle formulas, solar angle formulas or solar tracking procedures for the calculation of sun's position in the sky. Automatic sun tracking system software includes algorithms for solar altitude azimuth angle calculations required in following the sun across the sky. In using the longitude, latitude GPS coordinates of the solar tracker location, these sun tracking software tools supports precision solar tracking by determining the solar altitude-azimuth coordinates for the sun trajectory in altitude-azimuth tracking at the tracker location, using certain sun angle formulas in sun vector calculations. Instead of follow the sun software, a sun tracking sensor such as a sun sensor or webcam or video camera with vision based sun following image processing software can also be used to determine the position of the sun optically. Such optical feedback devices are often used in solar panel tracking systems and dish tracking systems. Dynamic sun tracing is also used in solar surveying, DNI analyser and sun surveying systems that build solar infographics maps with solar radiance, irradiance and DNI models for GIS (geographical information system). In this way geospatial methods on solar/environment interaction makes use use of geospatial technologies (GIS, Remote Sensing, and Cartography). Climatic data and weather station or weather center data, as well as queries from sky servers and solar resource database systems (i.e. on DB2, Sybase, Oracle, SQL, MySQL) may also be associated with solar GIS maps. In such solar resource modelling systems, a pyranometer or solarimeter is normally used in addition to measure direct and indirect, scattered, dispersed, reflective radiation for a particular geographical location. Sunlight analysis is important in flash photography where photographic lighting are important for photographers. GIS systems are used by architects who add sun shadow applets to study architectural shading or sun shadow analysis, solar flux calculations, optical modelling or to perform weather modelling. Such systems often employ a computer operated telescope type mechanism with ray tracing program software as a solar navigator or sun tracer that determines the solar position and intensity. The purpose of this booklet is to assist developers to track and trace suitable source-code and solar tracking algorithms for their application, whether a hobbyist, scientist, technician or engineer. Many open-source sun following and tracking algorithms and source-code for solar tracking programs and modules are freely available to download on the internet today. Certain proprietary solar tracker kits and solar tracking controllers include a software development kit SDK for its application programming interface API attributes (Pebble). Widget libraries, widget toolkits, GUI toolkit and UX libraries with graphical control elements are also available to construct the graphical user interface (GUI) for your solar tracking or solar power monitoring program. The solar library used by solar position calculators, solar simulation software and solar contour calculators include machine program code for the solar hardware controller which are software programmed into Micro-controllers, Programmable Logic Controllers PLC, programmable gate arrays, Arduino processor or PIC processor. PC based solar tracking is also high in demand using C++, Visual Basic VB, as well as MS Windows, Linux and Apple Mac based operating systems for sun path tables on Matlab, Excel. Some books and internet webpages use other terms, such as: sun angle calculator, sun position calculator or solar angle calculator. As said, such software code calculate the solar azimuth angle, solar altitude angle, solar elevation angle or the solar Zenith angle (Zenith solar angle is simply referenced from vertical plane, the mirror of the elevation angle measured from the horizontal or ground plane level). Similar software code is also used in solar calculator apps or the solar power calculator apps for IOS and Android smartphone devices. Most of these smartphone solar mobile apps show the sun path and sun-angles for any location and date over a 24 hour period. Some smartphones include augmented reality features in which you can physically see and look at the solar path through your cell phone camera or mobile phone camera at your phone's specific GPS location. In the computer programming and digital signal processing (DSP) environment, (free/open source) program code are available for VB, .Net, Delphi, Python, C, C+, C++, PHP, Swift, ADM, F, Flash, Basic, QBasic, GBasic, KBasic, SIMPL language, Squirrel, Solaris, Assembly language on operating systems such as MS Windows, Apple Mac, DOS or Linux OS. Software algorithms predicting position of the sun in the sky are commonly available as graphical programming platforms such as Matlab (Mathworks), Simulink models, Java applets, TRNSYS simulations, Scada system apps, Labview module, Beckhoff TwinCAT (Visual Studio), Siemens SPA, mobile and iphone apps, Android or iOS tablet apps, and so forth. At the same time, PLC software code for a range of sun tracking automation technology can follow the profile of sun in sky for Siemens, HP, Panasonic, ABB, Allan Bradley, OMRON, SEW, Festo, Beckhoff, Rockwell, Schneider, Endress Hauser, Fudji electric. Honeywell, Fuchs, Yokonawa, or Muthibishi platforms. Sun path projection software are also available for a range of modular IPC embedded PC motherboards, Industrial PC, PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) and PAC (Programmable Automation Controller) such as the Siemens S7-1200 or Siemens Logo, Beckhoff IPC or CX series, OMRON PLC, Ercam PLC, AC500plc ABB, National Instruments NI PXI or NI cRIO, PIC processor, Intel 8051/8085, IBM (Cell, Power, Brain or Truenorth series), FPGA (Xilinx Altera Nios), Intel, Xeon, Atmel megaAVR, MPU, Maple, Teensy, MSP, XMOS, Xbee, ARM, Raspberry Pi, Eagle, Arduino or Arduino AtMega microcontroller, with servo motor, stepper motor, direct current DC pulse width modulation PWM (current driver) or alternating current AC SPS or IPC variable frequency drives VFD motor drives (also termed adjustable-frequency drive, variable-speed drive, AC drive, micro drive or inverter drive) for electrical, mechatronic, pneumatic, or hydraulic solar tracking actuators. The above motion control and robot control systems include analogue or digital interfacing ports on the processors to allow for tracker angle orientation feedback control through one or a combination of angle sensor or angle encoder, shaft encoder, precision encoder, optical encoder, magnetic encoder, direction encoder, rotational encoder, chip encoder, tilt sensor, inclination sensor, or pitch sensor. Note that the tracker's elevation or zenith axis angle may measured using an altitude angle-, declination angle-, inclination angle-, pitch angle-, or vertical angle-, zenith angle- sensor or inclinometer. Similarly the tracker's azimuth axis angle be measured with a azimuth angle-, horizontal angle-, or roll angle- sensor. Chip integrated accelerometer magnetometer gyroscope type angle sensors can also be used to calculate displacement. Other options include the use of thermal imaging systems such as a Fluke thermal imager, or robotic or vision based solar tracker systems that employ face tracking, head tracking, hand tracking, eye tracking and car tracking principles in solar tracking. With unattended decentralised rural, island, isolated, or autonomous off-grid power installations, remote control, monitoring, data acquisition, digital datalogging and online measurement and verification equipment becomes crucial. It assists the operator with supervisory control to monitor the efficiency of remote renewable energy resources and systems and provide valuable web-based feedback in terms of CO2 and clean development mechanism (CDM) reporting. A power quality analyser for diagnostics through internet, WiFi and cellular mobile links is most valuable in frontline troubleshooting and predictive maintenance, where quick diagnostic analysis is required to detect and prevent power quality issues. Solar tracker applications cover a wide spectrum of solar applications and solar assisted application, including concentrated solar power generation, solar desalination, solar water purification, solar steam generation, solar electricity generation, solar industrial process heat, solar thermal heat storage, solar food dryers, solar water pumping, hydrogen production from methane or producing hydrogen and oxygen from water (HHO) through electrolysis. Many patented or non-patented solar apparatus include tracking in solar apparatus for solar electric generator, solar desalinator, solar steam engine, solar ice maker, solar water purifier, solar cooling, solar refrigeration, USB solar charger, solar phone charging, portable solar charging tracker, solar coffee brewing, solar cooking or solar dying means. Your project may be the next breakthrough or patent, but your invention is held back by frustration in search for the sun tracker you require for your solar powered appliance, solar generator, solar tracker robot, solar freezer, solar cooker, solar drier, solar pump, solar freezer, or solar dryer project. Whether your solar electronic circuit diagram include a simplified solar controller design in a solar electricity project, solar power kit, solar hobby kit, solar steam generator, solar hot water system, solar ice maker, solar desalinator, hobbyist solar panels, hobby robot, or if you are developing professional or hobby electronics for a solar utility or micro scale solar powerplant for your own solar farm or solar farming, this publication may help accelerate the development of your solar tracking innovation. Lately, solar polygeneration, solar trigeneration (solar triple generation), and solar quad generation (adding delivery of steam, liquid/gaseous fuel, or capture food-grade CO$_2$) systems have need for automatic solar tracking. These systems are known for significant efficiency increases in energy yield as a result of the integration and re-use of waste or residual heat and are suitable for compact packaged micro solar powerplants that could be manufactured and transported in kit-form and operate on a plug-and play basis. Typical hybrid solar power systems include compact or packaged solar micro combined heat and power (CHP or mCHP) or solar micro combined, cooling, heating and power (CCHP, CHPC, mCCHP, or mCHPC) systems used in distributed power generation. These systems are often combined in concentrated solar CSP and CPV smart microgrid configurations for off-grid rural, island or isolated microgrid, minigrid and distributed power renewable energy systems. Solar tracking algorithms are also used in modelling of trigeneration systems using Matlab Simulink (Modelica or TRNSYS) platform as well as in automation and control of renewable energy systems through intelligent parsing, multi-objective, adaptive learning control and control optimization strategies. Solar tracking algorithms also find application in developing solar models for country or location specific solar studies, for example in terms of measuring or analysis of the fluctuations of the solar radiation (i.e. direct and diffuse radiation) in a particular area. Solar DNI, solar irradiance and atmospheric information and models can thus be integrated into a solar map, solar atlas or geographical information systems (GIS). Such models allows for defining local parameters for specific regions that may be valuable in terms of the evaluation of different solar in photovoltaic of CSP systems on simulation and synthesis platforms such as Matlab and Simulink or in linear or multi-objective optimization algorithm platforms such as COMPOSE, EnergyPLAN or DER-CAM. A dual-axis solar tracker and single-axis solar tracker may use a sun tracker program or sun tracker algorithm to position a solar dish, solar panel array, heliostat array, PV panel, solar antenna or infrared solar nantenna. A self-tracking solar concentrator performs automatic solar tracking by computing the solar vector. Solar position algorithms (TwinCAT, SPA, or PSA Algorithms) use an astronomical algorithm to calculate the position of the sun. It uses astronomical software algorithms and equations for solar tracking in the calculation of sun's position in the sky for each location on the earth at any time of day. Like an optical solar telescope, the solar position algorithm pin-points the solar reflector at the sun and locks onto the sun's position to track the sun across the sky as the sun progresses throughout the day. Optical sensors such as photodiodes, light-dependant-resistors (LDR) or photoresistors are used as optical accuracy feedback devices. Lately we also included a section in the book (with links to microprocessor code) on how the PixArt Wii infrared camera in the Wii remote or Wiimote may be used in infrared solar tracking applications. In order to harvest free energy from the sun, some automatic solar positioning systems use an optical means to direct the solar tracking device. These solar tracking strategies use optical tracking techniques, such as a sun sensor means, to direct sun rays onto a silicon or CMOS substrate to determine the X and Y coordinates of the sun's position. In a solar mems sun-sensor device, incident sunlight enters the sun sensor through a small pin-hole in a mask plate where light is exposed to a silicon substrate. In a web-camera or camera image processing sun tracking and sun following means, object tracking software performs multi object tracking or moving object tracking methods. In an solar object tracking technique, image processing software performs mathematical processing to box the outline of the apparent solar disc or sun blob within the captured image frame, while sun-localization is performed with an edge detection algorithm to determine the solar vector coordinates. An automated positioning system help maximize the yields of solar power plants through solar tracking control to harness sun's energy. In such renewable energy systems, the solar panel positioning system uses a sun tracking techniques and a solar angle calculator in positioning PV panels in photovoltaic systems and concentrated photovoltaic CPV systems. Automatic on-axis solar tracking in a PV solar tracking system can be dual-axis sun tracking or single-axis sun solar tracking. It is known that a motorized positioning system in a photovoltaic panel tracker increase energy yield and ensures increased power output, even in a single axis solar tracking configuration. Other applications such as robotic solar tracker or robotic solar tracking system uses robotica with artificial intelligence in the control optimization of energy yield in solar harvesting through a robotic tracking system. Automatic positioning systems in solar tracking designs are also used in other free energy generators, such as concentrated solar thermal power CSP and dish Stirling systems. The sun tracking device in a solar collector in a solar concentrator or solar collector Such a performs on-axis solar tracking, a dual axis solar tracker assists to harness energy from the sun through an optical solar collector, which can be a parabolic mirror, parabolic reflector, Fresnel lens or mirror array/matrix. A parabolic dish or reflector is dynamically steered using a transmission system or solar tracking slew drive mean. In steering the dish to face the sun, the power dish actuator and actuation means in a parabolic dish system optically focusses the sun's energy on the focal point of a parabolic dish or solar concentrating means. A Stirling engine, solar heat pipe, thermosyphin, solar phase change material PCM receiver, or a fibre optic sunlight receiver means is located at the focal point of the solar concentrator. The dish Stirling engine configuration is referred to as a dish Stirling system or Stirling power generation system. Hybrid solar power systems (used in combination with biogas, biofuel, petrol, ethanol, diesel, natural gas or PNG) use a combination of power sources to harness and store solar energy in a storage medium. Any multitude of energy sources can be combined through the use of controllers and the energy stored in batteries, phase change material, thermal heat storage, and in cogeneration form converted to the required power using thermodynamic cycles (organic Rankin, Brayton cycle, micro turbine, Stirling) with an inverter and charge controller. В этой книге подробно Автоматическая Solar-Tracking, ВС-Tracking-Systems, Solar-трекеры и ВС Tracker Systems. Интеллектуальный автоматический солнечной слежения является устройством, которое ориентирует полезную нагрузку к солнцу. Такое программируемый компьютер на основе солнечной устройство слежения включает принципы солнечной слежения, солнечных систем слежения, а также микроконтроллер, микропроцессор и / или ПК на базе управления солнечной отслеживания ориентироваться солнечных отражателей, солнечные линзы, фотоэлектрические панели или другие оптические конфигурации к ВС Моторизованные космические кадры и кинематические системы обеспечения динамики движения и использовать приводной техники и готовится принципы, чтобы направить оптические конфигурации, такие как Манжен, параболических, конических или Кассегрена солнечных коллекторов энергии, чтобы лицом к солнцу и следовать за солнцем контур движения непрерывно. В обуздывать силу от солнца через солнечный трекер или практической солнечной системы слежения, системы возобновляемых контроля энергии автоматизации требуют автоматического солнечной отслеживания программного обеспечения и алгоритмов солнечные позиции для достижения динамического контроля движения с архитектуры автоматизации управления, печатных плат и аппаратных средств. На оси системы слежения ВС, таких как высота-азимут двойной оси или многоосевые солнечные системы трекер использовать алгоритм отслеживания солнце или трассировки лучей датчиков или программное обеспечение, чтобы обеспечить прохождение солнца по небу прослеживается с высокой точностью в автоматизированных приложений Солнечная Tracker , прямо через летнего солнцестояния, солнечного равноденствия и зимнего солнцестояния.Высокая точность позиции ВС калькулятор или положение солнца алгоритм это важный шаг в проектировании и строительстве автоматической системой солнечной слежения. 這本書詳細介紹了全自動太陽能跟踪,太陽跟踪系統的出現,太陽能跟踪器和太陽跟踪系統。智能全自動太陽能跟踪器是定向向著太陽的有效載荷設備。這種可編程計算機的太陽能跟踪裝置,包括太陽跟踪,太陽能跟踪系統,以及微控制器,微處理器和/或基於PC機的太陽跟踪控制,以定向太陽能反射器,太陽透鏡,光電板或其他光學配置朝向太陽的原理。機動空間框架和運動系統,確保運動動力學和採用的驅動技術和傳動原理引導光學配置,如曼金,拋物線,圓錐曲線,或卡塞格林式太陽能集熱器面向太陽,不斷跟隨太陽運動的輪廓。 從陽光透過太陽能跟踪器或實用的太陽能跟踪系統利用電力,可再生能源控制的自動化系統需要自動太陽跟踪軟件和太陽位置算法來實現控制與自動化架構,電路板和硬件的動態運動控制。上軸太陽跟踪系統,如高度,方位角雙軸或多軸太陽跟踪系統使用太陽跟踪算法或光線追踪傳感器或軟件,以確保通過天空中太陽的通道被跟踪的高精度的自動太陽跟踪器的應用,通過正確的夏至,春分太陽和冬至。一種高精度太陽位置計算器或太陽位置算法是這樣的自動太陽能跟踪系統的設計和施工中的重要一步。

Automatic Solar Tracking Sun Tracking Satellite Tracking rastreador solar seguimento solar seguidor solar automático de seguimiento solar

Author : Gerro Prinsloo,Robert Dobson

ISBN10 : 0620615761

Publisher : Gerro Prinsloo

Number of Pages : 542

Category : Technology & Engineering

Viewed : 323

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Book Summary: Automatic Solar Tracking Sun Tracking : This book details Automatic Solar-Tracking, Sun-Tracking-Systems, Solar-Trackers and Sun Tracker Systems. An intelligent automatic solar tracker is a device that orients a payload toward the sun. Such programmable computer based solar tracking device includes principles of solar tracking, solar tracking systems, as well as microcontroller, microprocessor and/or PC based solar tracking control to orientate solar reflectors, solar lenses, photovoltaic panels or other optical configurations towards the sun. Motorized space frames and kinematic systems ensure motion dynamics and employ drive technology and gearing principles to steer optical configurations such as mangin, parabolic, conic, or cassegrain solar energy collectors to face the sun and follow the sun movement contour continuously (seguimiento solar y automatización, automatización seguidor solar, tracking solar e automação, automação seguidor solar, inseguimento solare, inseguitore solare, energia termica, sole seguito, posizionatore motorizzato) In harnessing power from the sun through a solar tracker or practical solar tracking system, renewable energy control automation systems require automatic solar tracking software and solar position algorithms to accomplish dynamic motion control with control automation architecture, circuit boards and hardware. On-axis sun tracking system such as the altitude-azimuth dual axis or multi-axis solar tracker systems use a sun tracking algorithm or ray tracing sensors or software to ensure the sun's passage through the sky is traced with high precision in automated solar tracker applications, right through summer solstice, solar equinox and winter solstice. A high precision sun position calculator or sun position algorithm is this an important step in the design and construction of an automatic solar tracking system. The content of the book is also applicable to communication antenna satellite tracking and moon tracking algorithm source code for which links to free download links are provided. From sun tracing software perspective, the sonnet Tracing The Sun has a literal meaning. Within the context of sun track and trace, this book explains that the sun's daily path across the sky is directed by relatively simple principles, and if grasped/understood, then it is relatively easy to trace the sun with sun following software. Sun position computer software for tracing the sun are available as open source code, sources that is listed in this book. The book also describes the use of satellite tracking software and mechanisms in solar tracking applications. Ironically there was even a system called sun chaser, said to have been a solar positioner system known for chasing the sun throughout the day. Using solar equations in an electronic circuit for automatic solar tracking is quite simple, even if you are a novice, but mathematical solar equations are over complicated by academic experts and professors in text-books, journal articles and internet websites. In terms of solar hobbies, scholars, students and Hobbyist's looking at solar tracking electronics or PC programs for solar tracking are usually overcome by the sheer volume of scientific material and internet resources, which leaves many developers in frustration when search for simple experimental solar tracking source-code for their on-axis sun-tracking systems. This booklet will simplify the search for the mystical sun tracking formulas for your sun tracker innovation and help you develop your own autonomous solar tracking controller. By directing the solar collector directly into the sun, a solar harvesting means or device can harness sunlight or thermal heat. This is achieved with the help of sun angle formulas, solar angle formulas or solar tracking procedures for the calculation of sun's position in the sky. Automatic sun tracking system software includes algorithms for solar altitude azimuth angle calculations required in following the sun across the sky. In using the longitude, latitude GPS coordinates of the solar tracker location, these sun tracking software tools supports precision solar tracking by determining the solar altitude-azimuth coordinates for the sun trajectory in altitude-azimuth tracking at the tracker location, using certain sun angle formulas in sun vector calculations. Instead of follow the sun software, a sun tracking sensor such as a sun sensor or webcam or video camera with vision based sun following image processing software can also be used to determine the position of the sun optically. Such optical feedback devices are often used in solar panel tracking systems and dish tracking systems. Dynamic sun tracing is also used in solar surveying, DNI analyser and sun surveying systems that build solar infographics maps with solar radiance, irradiance and DNI models for GIS (geographical information system). In this way geospatial methods on solar/environment interaction makes use use of geospatial technologies (GIS, Remote Sensing, and Cartography). Climatic data and weather station or weather center data, as well as queries from sky servers and solar resource database systems (i.e. on DB2, Sybase, Oracle, SQL, MySQL) may also be associated with solar GIS maps. In such solar resource modelling systems, a pyranometer or solarimeter is normally used in addition to measure direct and indirect, scattered, dispersed, reflective radiation for a particular geographical location. Sunlight analysis is important in flash photography where photographic lighting are important for photographers. GIS systems are used by architects who add sun shadow applets to study architectural shading or sun shadow analysis, solar flux calculations, optical modelling or to perform weather modelling. Such systems often employ a computer operated telescope type mechanism with ray tracing program software as a solar navigator or sun tracer that determines the solar position and intensity. The purpose of this booklet is to assist developers to track and trace suitable source-code and solar tracking algorithms for their application, whether a hobbyist, scientist, technician or engineer. Many open-source sun following and tracking algorithms and source-code for solar tracking programs and modules are freely available to download on the internet today. Certain proprietary solar tracker kits and solar tracking controllers include a software development kit SDK for its application programming interface API attributes (Pebble). Widget libraries, widget toolkits, GUI toolkit and UX libraries with graphical control elements are also available to construct the graphical user interface (GUI) for your solar tracking or solar power monitoring program. The solar library used by solar position calculators, solar simulation software and solar contour calculators include machine program code for the solar hardware controller which are software programmed into Micro-controllers, Programmable Logic Controllers PLC, programmable gate arrays, Arduino processor or PIC processor. PC based solar tracking is also high in demand using C++, Visual Basic VB, as well as MS Windows, Linux and Apple Mac based operating systems for sun path tables on Matlab, Excel. Some books and internet webpages use other terms, such as: sun angle calculator, sun position calculator or solar angle calculator. As said, such software code calculate the solar azimuth angle, solar altitude angle, solar elevation angle or the solar Zenith angle (Zenith solar angle is simply referenced from vertical plane, the mirror of the elevation angle measured from the horizontal or ground plane level). Similar software code is also used in solar calculator apps or the solar power calculator apps for IOS and Android smartphone devices. Most of these smartphone solar mobile apps show the sun path and sun-angles for any location and date over a 24 hour period. Some smartphones include augmented reality features in which you can physically see and look at the solar path through your cell phone camera or mobile phone camera at your phone's specific GPS location. In the computer programming and digital signal processing (DSP) environment, (free/open source) program code are available for VB, .Net, Delphi, Python, C, C+, C++, PHP, Swift, ADM, F, Flash, Basic, QBasic, GBasic, KBasic, SIMPL language, Squirrel, Solaris, Assembly language on operating systems such as MS Windows, Apple Mac, DOS or Linux OS. Software algorithms predicting position of the sun in the sky are commonly available as graphical programming platforms such as Matlab (Mathworks), Simulink models, Java applets, TRNSYS simulations, Scada system apps, Labview module, Beckhoff TwinCAT (Visual Studio), Siemens SPA, mobile and iphone apps, Android or iOS tablet apps, and so forth. At the same time, PLC software code for a range of sun tracking automation technology can follow the profile of sun in sky for Siemens, HP, Panasonic, ABB, Allan Bradley, OMRON, SEW, Festo, Beckhoff, Rockwell, Schneider, Endress Hauser, Fudji electric. Honeywell, Fuchs, Yokonawa, or Muthibishi platforms. Sun path projection software are also available for a range of modular IPC embedded PC motherboards, Industrial PC, PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) and PAC (Programmable Automation Controller) such as the Siemens S7-1200 or Siemens Logo, Beckhoff IPC or CX series, OMRON PLC, Ercam PLC, AC500plc ABB, National Instruments NI PXI or NI cRIO, PIC processor, Intel 8051/8085, IBM (Cell, Power, Brain or Truenorth series), FPGA (Xilinx Altera Nios), Intel, Xeon, Atmel megaAVR, MPU, Maple, Teensy, MSP, XMOS, Xbee, ARM, Raspberry Pi, Eagle, Arduino or Arduino AtMega microcontroller, with servo motor, stepper motor, direct current DC pulse width modulation PWM (current driver) or alternating current AC SPS or IPC variable frequency drives VFD motor drives (also termed adjustable-frequency drive, variable-speed drive, AC drive, micro drive or inverter drive) for electrical, mechatronic, pneumatic, or hydraulic solar tracking actuators. The above motion control and robot control systems include analogue or digital interfacing ports on the processors to allow for tracker angle orientation feedback control through one or a combination of angle sensor or angle encoder, shaft encoder, precision encoder, optical encoder, magnetic encoder, direction encoder, rotational encoder, chip encoder, tilt sensor, inclination sensor, or pitch sensor. Note that the tracker's elevation or zenith axis angle may measured using an altitude angle-, declination angle-, inclination angle-, pitch angle-, or vertical angle-, zenith angle- sensor or inclinometer. Similarly the tracker's azimuth axis angle be measured with a azimuth angle-, horizontal angle-, or roll angle- sensor. Chip integrated accelerometer magnetometer gyroscope type angle sensors can also be used to calculate displacement. Other options include the use of thermal imaging systems such as a Fluke thermal imager, or robotic or vision based solar tracker systems that employ face tracking, head tracking, hand tracking, eye tracking and car tracking principles in solar tracking. With unattended decentralised rural, island, isolated, or autonomous off-grid power installations, remote control, monitoring, data acquisition, digital datalogging and online measurement and verification equipment becomes crucial. It assists the operator with supervisory control to monitor the efficiency of remote renewable energy resources and systems and provide valuable web-based feedback in terms of CO2 and clean development mechanism (CDM) reporting. A power quality analyser for diagnostics through internet, WiFi and cellular mobile links is most valuable in frontline troubleshooting and predictive maintenance, where quick diagnostic analysis is required to detect and prevent power quality issues. Solar tracker applications cover a wide spectrum of solar applications and solar assisted application, including concentrated solar power generation, solar desalination, solar water purification, solar steam generation, solar electricity generation, solar industrial process heat, solar thermal heat storage, solar food dryers, solar water pumping, hydrogen production from methane or producing hydrogen and oxygen from water (HHO) through electrolysis. Many patented or non-patented solar apparatus include tracking in solar apparatus for solar electric generator, solar desalinator, solar steam engine, solar ice maker, solar water purifier, solar cooling, solar refrigeration, USB solar charger, solar phone charging, portable solar charging tracker, solar coffee brewing, solar cooking or solar dying means. Your project may be the next breakthrough or patent, but your invention is held back by frustration in search for the sun tracker you require for your solar powered appliance, solar generator, solar tracker robot, solar freezer, solar cooker, solar drier, solar pump, solar freezer, or solar dryer project. Whether your solar electronic circuit diagram include a simplified solar controller design in a solar electricity project, solar power kit, solar hobby kit, solar steam generator, solar hot water system, solar ice maker, solar desalinator, hobbyist solar panels, hobby robot, or if you are developing professional or hobby electronics for a solar utility or micro scale solar powerplant for your own solar farm or solar farming, this publication may help accelerate the development of your solar tracking innovation. Lately, solar polygeneration, solar trigeneration (solar triple generation), and solar quad generation (adding delivery of steam, liquid/gaseous fuel, or capture food-grade CO$_2$) systems have need for automatic solar tracking. These systems are known for significant efficiency increases in energy yield as a result of the integration and re-use of waste or residual heat and are suitable for compact packaged micro solar powerplants that could be manufactured and transported in kit-form and operate on a plug-and play basis. Typical hybrid solar power systems include compact or packaged solar micro combined heat and power (CHP or mCHP) or solar micro combined, cooling, heating and power (CCHP, CHPC, mCCHP, or mCHPC) systems used in distributed power generation. These systems are often combined in concentrated solar CSP and CPV smart microgrid configurations for off-grid rural, island or isolated microgrid, minigrid and distributed power renewable energy systems. Solar tracking algorithms are also used in modelling of trigeneration systems using Matlab Simulink (Modelica or TRNSYS) platform as well as in automation and control of renewable energy systems through intelligent parsing, multi-objective, adaptive learning control and control optimization strategies. Solar tracking algorithms also find application in developing solar models for country or location specific solar studies, for example in terms of measuring or analysis of the fluctuations of the solar radiation (i.e. direct and diffuse radiation) in a particular area. Solar DNI, solar irradiance and atmospheric information and models can thus be integrated into a solar map, solar atlas or geographical information systems (GIS). Such models allows for defining local parameters for specific regions that may be valuable in terms of the evaluation of different solar in photovoltaic of CSP systems on simulation and synthesis platforms such as Matlab and Simulink or in linear or multi-objective optimization algorithm platforms such as COMPOSE, EnergyPLAN or DER-CAM. A dual-axis solar tracker and single-axis solar tracker may use a sun tracker program or sun tracker algorithm to position a solar dish, solar panel array, heliostat array, PV panel, solar antenna or infrared solar nantenna. A self-tracking solar concentrator performs automatic solar tracking by computing the solar vector. Solar position algorithms (TwinCAT, SPA, or PSA Algorithms) use an astronomical algorithm to calculate the position of the sun. It uses astronomical software algorithms and equations for solar tracking in the calculation of sun's position in the sky for each location on the earth at any time of day. Like an optical solar telescope, the solar position algorithm pin-points the solar reflector at the sun and locks onto the sun's position to track the sun across the sky as the sun progresses throughout the day. Optical sensors such as photodiodes, light-dependant-resistors (LDR) or photoresistors are used as optical accuracy feedback devices. Lately we also included a section in the book (with links to microprocessor code) on how the PixArt Wii infrared camera in the Wii remote or Wiimote may be used in infrared solar tracking applications. In order to harvest free energy from the sun, some automatic solar positioning systems use an optical means to direct the solar tracking device. These solar tracking strategies use optical tracking techniques, such as a sun sensor means, to direct sun rays onto a silicon or CMOS substrate to determine the X and Y coordinates of the sun's position. In a solar mems sun-sensor device, incident sunlight enters the sun sensor through a small pin-hole in a mask plate where light is exposed to a silicon substrate. In a web-camera or camera image processing sun tracking and sun following means, object tracking software performs multi object tracking or moving object tracking methods. In an solar object tracking technique, image processing software performs mathematical processing to box the outline of the apparent solar disc or sun blob within the captured image frame, while sun-localization is performed with an edge detection algorithm to determine the solar vector coordinates. An automated positioning system help maximize the yields of solar power plants through solar tracking control to harness sun's energy. In such renewable energy systems, the solar panel positioning system uses a sun tracking techniques and a solar angle calculator in positioning PV panels in photovoltaic systems and concentrated photovoltaic CPV systems. Automatic on-axis solar tracking in a PV solar tracking system can be dual-axis sun tracking or single-axis sun solar tracking. It is known that a motorized positioning system in a photovoltaic panel tracker increase energy yield and ensures increased power output, even in a single axis solar tracking configuration. Other applications such as robotic solar tracker or robotic solar tracking system uses robotica with artificial intelligence in the control optimization of energy yield in solar harvesting through a robotic tracking system. Automatic positioning systems in solar tracking designs are also used in other free energy generators, such as concentrated solar thermal power CSP and dish Stirling systems. The sun tracking device in a solar collector in a solar concentrator or solar collector Such a performs on-axis solar tracking, a dual axis solar tracker assists to harness energy from the sun through an optical solar collector, which can be a parabolic mirror, parabolic reflector, Fresnel lens or mirror array/matrix. A parabolic dish or reflector is dynamically steered using a transmission system or solar tracking slew drive mean. In steering the dish to face the sun, the power dish actuator and actuation means in a parabolic dish system optically focusses the sun's energy on the focal point of a parabolic dish or solar concentrating means. A Stirling engine, solar heat pipe, thermosyphin, solar phase change material PCM receiver, or a fibre optic sunlight receiver means is located at the focal point of the solar concentrator. The dish Stirling engine configuration is referred to as a dish Stirling system or Stirling power generation system. Hybrid solar power systems (used in combination with biogas, biofuel, petrol, ethanol, diesel, natural gas or PNG) use a combination of power sources to harness and store solar energy in a storage medium. Any multitude of energy sources can be combined through the use of controllers and the energy stored in batteries, phase change material, thermal heat storage, and in cogeneration form converted to the required power using thermodynamic cycles (organic Rankin, Brayton cycle, micro turbine, Stirling) with an inverter and charge controller.

Sun Tracking and Solar Renewable Energy Harvesting

Author : Gerro Prinsloo,Robert Dobson

ISBN10 :

Publisher : Gerro Prinsloo

Number of Pages : 489

Category : Computers

Viewed : 960

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Book Summary: Free to download eBook on Practical Solar Tracking Design, Solar Tracking, Sun Tracking, Sun Tracker, Solar Tracker, Follow Sun, Sun Position calculation (Azimuth, Elevation, Zenith), Sun following, Sunrise, Sunset, Moon-phase, Moonrise, Moonset calculators. In harnessing power from the sun through a solar tracker or solar tracking system, renewable energy system developers require automatic solar tracking software and solar position algorithms. On-axis sun tracking system such as the altitude-azimuth dual axis or multi-axis solar tracker systems use a sun tracking algorithm or ray tracing sensors or software to ensure the sun's passage through the sky is traced with high precision in automated solar tracker applications, right through summer solstice, solar equinox and winter solstice. Eco Friendly and Environmentally Sustainable Micro Combined Solar Heat and Power (m-CHP, m-CCHP, m-CHCP) with Microgrid Storage and Layered Smartgrid Control towards Supplying Off-Grid Rural Villages in developing BRICS countries such as Africa, India, China and Brazil. Off-grid rural villages and isolated islands areas require mCHP and trigeneration solar power plants and associated isolated smart microgrid solutions to serve the community energy needs. This article describes the development progress for such a system, also referred to as solar polygeneration. The system includes a sun tracker mechanism wherin a parabolic dish or lenses are guided by a light sensitive mechanique in a way that the solar receiver is always at right angle to the solar radiation. Solar thermal energy is then either converted into electrical energy through a free piston Stirling, or stored in a thermal storage container. The project includes the thermodynamic modeling of the plant in Matlab Simulink as well as the development of an intelligent control approach that includes smart microgrid distribution and optimization. The book includes aspects in the simulation and optimization of stand-alone hybrid renewable energy systems and co-generation in isolated or islanded microgrids. It focusses on the stepwise development of a hybrid solar driven micro combined cooling heating and power (mCCHP) compact trigeneration polygeneration and thermal energy storage (TES) system with intelligent weather prediction, weak-ahead scheduling (time horizon), and look-ahead dispatch on integrated smart microgrid distribution principles. The solar harvesting and solar thermodynamic system includes an automatic sun tracking platform based on a PLC controlled mechatronic sun tracking system that follows the sun progressing across the sky. An intelligent energy management and adaptive learning control optimization approach is proposed for autonomous off-grid remote power applications, both for thermodynamic optimization and smart micro-grid optimization for distributed energy resources (DER). The correct resolution of this load-following multi objective optimization problem is a complex task because of the high number and multi-dimensional variables, the cross-correlation and interdependency between the energy streams as well as the non-linearity in the performance of some of the system components. Exergy-based control approaches for smartgrid topologies are considered in terms of the intelligence behind the safe and reliable operation of a microgrid in an automated system that can manage energy flow in electrical as well as thermal energy systems. The standalone micro-grid solution would be suitable for a rural village, intelligent building, district energy system, campus power, shopping mall centre, isolated network, eco estate or remote island application setting where self-generation and decentralized energy system concepts play a role. Discrete digital simulation models for the thermodynamic and active demand side management systems with digital smartgrid control unit to optimize the system energy management is currently under development. Parametric simulation models for this trigeneration system (polygeneration, poligeneration, quadgeneration) are developed on the Matlab Simulink and TrnSys platforms. In terms of model predictive coding strategies, the automation controller will perform multi-objective cost optimization for energy management on a microgrid level by managing the generation and storage of electrical, heat and cooling energies in layers. Each layer has its own set of smart microgrid priorities associated with user demand side cycle predictions. Mixed Integer Linear Programming and Neural network algorithms are being modeled to perform Multi Objective Control optimization as potential optimization and adaptive learning techniques.

Growing Food in the Southwest Mountains (4th Edition)

Author : Lisa Rayner

ISBN10 : 0980060834

Publisher : Lifeweaver

Number of Pages : 282

Category : Gardening

Viewed : 1058

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Book Summary: Whether you are a weekend gardener who has never heard of permaculture, or an avid gardener already familiar with the permaculture approach, this book will help you grow food under the most challenging of circumstances. Growing Food in the Southwest Mountains will teach you how to deal with dry weather, high winds, intense sunlight, cold nights, summer heat, insect pests, weeds and other challenges of the high-elevation Southwest. This 4th edition of this popular regional gardening book contains more than four times the information in the 3rd edition. The 4th edition includes: Information applicable to an expanded geographical range including the highlands of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Nevada and California. An expanded list of fruit, herbs, vegetables, beans, nuts and seeds with detailed planting information on water, sun and soil needs, USDA zones, pollination requirements and more.A thorough look at how climate change is altering gardening at high elevations in the Southwest.Why we need to recreate local food systems in an era of climate change and resource depletion. An expanded description of permaculture garden design for our bioregion including a new chapter on creating plant guild ecosystems in harmony with your local wild ecosystems and wildlife. Learn how to attract native pollinators and other beneficial insects and birds to your garden while keeping out garden pests.Expanded chapters on improving local soils, rainwater harvesting, greywater reuse, xeriscaping and other efficient garden watering methods, cold climate gardening in the semi-arid Southwest, gardening in sunny, shady and windy conditions, planting windbreaks, protecting plants from hail, fireproofing your yard and gardens, dealing with garden pests and diseases in an ecological manner, choosing seeds and seedlings, detailed seedling-raising information, seed saving and more. The new final chapter contains a brief history of Southwestern gathering, horticultural, agricultural and food traditions of Native Americans and European-American settlers. The chapter ends with a peek at creating a new bioregional cuisine from these traditions and traditions from similar ecosystems around the world such as the Andes Mountains and Tibetan Plateau. Appendices include glossaries of food plants and ingredient substitutions using foods that can be grown locally, and a large resource section of books, catalogs, magazines, DVDs, arboretums and permaculture institutes. For the first time the book includes an index.Hundreds of black and white drawings. This book will be most useful to you if you live in the ponderosa pine/Jeffrey pine forests or pinyon-juniper woodlands between 6,500-8,500 feet in Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Nevada and California. Most of the book is also useful to gardeners living in ponderosa forests and pinyon-juniper woodlands below 6,500 feet. Most of the information is also applicable to higher-elevation aspen-spruce-fir forests. What people are saying about Growing Food in the Southwest Mountains "Lisa Rayner’s book removes much of the mystery and guesswork involved in the endeavor of growing food in these harsh and, at times, unforgiving climates. Lisa draws from her extensive background in ecology and permaculture to create a holistic approach to gardening. The book contains critical information on microclimates and soils and on selecting appropriate species and varieties that are adapted to high elevations and short growing seasons. She also incorporates helpful information on the history of growing food in the Southwest, describes guilds of species that create thriving forest gardens, and recommends appropriate times to plant your seeds and starts. The appendices, which include a list of food substitutes, a glossary of food crops, and several pages of additional resources are well worth the price of the book. I highly recommend this book for anyone in the Southwest Mountains who is serious about growing their own food." — Judith D. Springer Co-editor of Field Guide to Forest & Mountain Plants of Northern Arizona "... a remarkably thorough and carefully assembled handbook for the home gardener in these challenging environments. Handsome original line drawings by Zachary Zdinack and old-fashioned woodcuts of garden scenes and plants ably enhance the text. The large, spiral-bound book, five to eight times the volume of its original predecessor, lays open easily.... There is excellent material on the political and economic imperatives for local food production, climate and microclimate, plants, soils, water management, garden pests, seeds, composting and basic garden layout. I really like the book and respect the hard work it took to assemble so much useful information on crops, soil, and climates. ...the template Rayner has created is an exemplary model for parallel work to be done in any major ecoregion. She has delved deeply into the synergistic implications of climate - including climate change - topography, transportation, demographics, microclimates, and much more... ...should be a first go-to reference for sustainable food system designers, home gardeners, and permaculture designers in the mountain Southwest." -- Peter Bane, Permaculture Activist Magazine, Winter 2013-2014 "Now in an expanded fourth edition with nearly four times as much information as the third edition, Growing Food in the Southwest Mountains is a methodical, user-friendly, in-depth guide written especially for people living in the states of California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona Colorado and New Mexico. Since the current industrial agriculture system relies heavily on fossil fuel consumption to produce and transport peak food, the need for alternatives -- including local, sustainable food supplies -- is ever-increasing. Growing Food in the Southwest Mountains discusses the basics of the Southwest Mountain climate, how to create permaculture zones, warnings against invasive species, tips for creating garden-friendly eco-communities, soil maintenance advice, watering strategies, advice for dealing with so-called 'pests,' a brief history of Southwestern food traditions and much more." --Midwest Book Review "If every region in North America had a handbook like this, we would be seven leagues ahead of where we now are in Permaculture education. The author and publishers are to be commended for creating a first-class resource." — Cathy Holt (about the 3rd edition) The Permaculture Activist magazine, Winter 2002/2003 “Lisa Rayner's new edition of this little masterpiece provides you with principles for living and eating in harmony with northern Arizona's natural habitats. It is a primer on how to change our food production and consumption strategies to sustain the natural and cultural heritage of our region.” — Dr. Gary Paul Nabhan (about the 3rd edition) Author of Coming Home to Eat: The Pleasures and Politics of Local Foods. from the preface Copyright (c) 2013 280 pages. 8.5 inches by 11 inches. Color cover, 400+ black and white illustrations.