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Discourse on the Origin of Inequality

Author :

ISBN10 : 8026885015

Publisher : e-artnow

Number of Pages : 63

Category : Political Science

Viewed : 647


Book Summary: Rousseau first exposes in Discourse on the Origin of Inequality his conception of a human state of nature, presented as a philosophical fiction and of human perfectibility, an early idea of progress. He then explains the way, according to him, people may have established civil society, which leads him to present private property as the original source and basis of all inequality. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712 – 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer of the 18th century, mainly active in France. His political philosophy influenced the Enlightenment across Europe, as well as aspects of the French Revolution and the overall development of modern political and educational thought.

Ecclesiastes or, The Preacher

Author : Doris Lessing

ISBN10 : 0857860941

Publisher : Canongate Books

Number of Pages : 64

Category : Bibles

Viewed : 1035


Book Summary: Ancient tradition suggests that this world-weary lament is the work of Solomon in old age. Casting its eye over the transient nature of life, the book questions the striving for wisdom and the truth, choosing instead to espouse the value of living for the moment. The text is introduced by Doris Lessing.

The Idea of Europe

Author : Catriona Seth,Rotraud von Kulessa

ISBN10 : 1783743816

Publisher : Open Book Publishers

Number of Pages : 178

Category : Literary Collections

Viewed : 908


Book Summary: In view of the challenges—many of which are political—that different European countries are currently facing, scholars who work on the eighteenth century have compiled this anthology which includes earlier recognitions of common values and past considerations of questions which often remain pertinent nowadays. During the Enlightenment, many men and women of letters envisaged the continent’s future in particular when stressing their hope that peace could be secured in Europe. The texts gathered here, and signed by major thinkers of the time (Rousseau, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Kant, Hume or Staël for instance), as well as by writers history has forgotten, present the reflections, with a couple of chronological extensions (from Sully to Victor Hugo) of authors from the long eighteenth century—the French Empire and the fall of Napoleon generated numerous upheavals—on Europe, its history, its diversity, but also on what the nations, which, in all their diversity, make up a geographical unit, have in common. They show the historical origins of the project of a European union, the desire to consolidate the continent’s ties to the Maghreb or to Turkey, the importance granted to commerce and the worries engendered by history’s convulsions, but also the hope vested in future generations. The Idea of Europe follows its sister edition in French, L’idée de l’Europe au Siècle des Lumières, also published by Open Book.

The Elementary Structures of Kinship

Author : Claude Levi-Strauss

ISBN10 : 0807096806

Publisher : Beacon Press

Number of Pages : 584

Category : Social Science

Viewed : 876


Book Summary: Professor Lévi-Strauss’s first major work, Les Structures élémentaires de la Parenté, has acquired a classic reputation since its original publication in 1949; and it has become the constant focus of academic debate about central theoretical concerns in social anthropology. It is, however, a long and difficult book for many students to read in French, and its arguments have consequently become known, even among professional anthropologists, largely through critical analysis. It was republished in a revised French edition in 1967 with a new foreword by the author, and it is this text with his further emendations that has been used in this translation. Lévi-Strauss applies his intellectual powers to the perennial problem of incest, which he elucidates by means of the concept of exchange as formulated by Marcel Mauss in his famous analysis of the gift (Essai sur le don, 1925). He distinguishes two elementary modes of exchange which govern not only the conventional variety of goods and services but also the transfer of women in marriage: these are “restricted” and “generalized” exchange. With a mass of ethnographic evidence he demonstrates how the formidable intricacy of marriage customs, comprising moral and jural ideas and institutions (which appear to be essentially arbitrary), can be seen as local and historical rules of exchange. Charles Lévi-Strauss traces these rules throughout a vast range of simple societies, chiefly in Australia and mainland Southeast Asia but also in the Americas, in Oceania, and in other parts of the world. To this survey he adds two extended sections on the great civilizations of China and India. He continues with a briefer consideration of the passage from elementary to complex structures, with particular reference to African societies, and concludes with a stimulating chapter on the principles of kinship, exchange as the universal basis for marriage prohibitions, and the formal relations between the sexes as part of a universe of communication. Although much of the work is technical, consisting of detailed analyses of types of social organization with which social anthropologists will be most familiar, it also contains much that will be of interest to psychologists, linguists, and philosophers, and to all who are interested in the possibility and the technique of the structural analysis of human activity. After the successes, moreover, of Lévi-Strauss’s subsequent books—notably Structural Anthropology, Tristes Tropiques, Totemism, and The Savage Mind—this new edition of the work which founded his present outstanding reputation will have additional value as a further means of contact with one of the original minds of this century. The translation has been made by James Harle Bell and John Richard von Sturmer, of the University of New England, Australia, and by Rodney Needham, of the University of Oxford. Dr. Needham also acted as general editor and supplied the work with a new general index. He is the translator of Lévi-Strauss’s Le Totemisme aujourd’hui and author of Structure and Sentiment (1962) and numerous papers which have contributed to the recognition of Professor Lévi-Strauss’s work in the English-speaking world.


Author : Jean Racine

ISBN10 : 1465529225

Publisher : Library of Alexandria

Number of Pages : 108

Category : Phaedra (Greek mythology)

Viewed : 1722


Book Summary:

For Better, For Worse

Author : John R. Gillis

ISBN10 : 019534541X

Publisher : Oxford University Press

Number of Pages : 417

Category : History

Viewed : 1998


Book Summary: Did you know that...The "contemporary" fashion of living together before marriage is far from new, and was frequently practiced in earlier days...Self-divorce, although never legal, was once a commonplace occurrence...Marriage is more popular today than in the Victorian era...Marriage in church was not compulsory in England and Wales until the mid-18th century. These are just a few of the fascinating, and often surprising, revelations in For Better, For Worse, the most comprehensive treatment to date of the history of marriage in a major Western society. Using fresh evidence from popular courtship and wedding rituals over four centuries, Gillis challenges the widely held belief that marriage has evolved from a cold, impersonal arrangement to a more affectionate, egalitarian form of companionship. The truth, argues Gillis, lies somewhere in between: conjugal love was never wholly absent in preindustrial times, while today's marriages are less companionate than is commonly believed. Gillis also illustrates, in rich detail, the perpetual tension between marital ideals and actual practices. This social history of the behavior and emotions of ordinary men and women radically revises our perspective on love and marriage in the past--and the present.

Rapport mondial des Nations Unies sur la mise en valeur des ressources en eau 2021

Author :

ISBN10 : 9214030154

Publisher : United Nations

Number of Pages : N.A

Category : Law

Viewed : 1278


Book Summary: L'eau est une ressource qui n'est pas infinie et qui est non substituable. En tant que fondement de la vie, des sociétés et des économies, l'eau comporte de multiples valeurs et avantages. Mais contrairement à la plupart des autres ressources naturelles, il s’est avéré extrêmement difficile de déterminer sa véritable «valeur». L'édition 2021 du rapport mondial sur la mise en valeur de l'eau des Nations Unies, intitulée «Valuing Water» évalue l'état actuel et les défis de la valorisation de l'eau dans différents secteurs et perspectives et identifie les moyens de promouvoir sa valorisation en tant qu'outil pour aider à améliorer sa gestion et parvenir à un développement durable à l’échelle mondiale.