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Comic Books, Graphic Novels and the Holocaust

Author :

ISBN10 : 042994229X

Publisher : Routledge

Number of Pages : 132

Category : Social Science

Viewed : 1805


Book Summary: This book analyses the portrayals of the Holocaust in newspaper cartoons, educational pamphlets, short stories and graphic novels. Focusing on recognised and lesser-known illustrators from Europe and beyond, the volume looks at autobiographical and fictional accounts and seeks to paint a broader picture of Holocaust comic strips from the 1940s to the present. The book shows that the genre is a capacious one, not only dealing with the killing of millions of Jews but also with Jewish lives in war-torn Europe, the personal and transgenerational memory of the Second World War and the wider national and transnational legacies of the Shoah. The chapters in this collection point to the aesthetic diversity of the genre which uses figurative and allegorical representation, as well as applying different stylistics, from realism to fantasy. Finally, the contributions to this volume show new developments in comic books and graphic novels on the Holocaust, including the rise of alternative publications, aimed at the adult reader, and the emergence of state-funded educational comics written with young readers in mind. This book was originally published as a special issue of the Journal of Modern Jewish Studies.

From Krakow to Krypton

Author : Arie Kaplan

ISBN10 : 0827610432

Publisher : Jewish Publication Society

Number of Pages : 240

Category : Art

Viewed : 1516


Book Summary: Jews created the first comic book, the first graphic novel, the first comic book convention, the first comic book specialty store, and they helped create the underground comics (or "Comix") movement of the late '60s and early '70s. Many of the creators of the most famous comic books, such as Superman, Spiderman, X-Men, and Batman, as well as the founders of MAD Magazine, were Jewish. From Krakow to Krypton: Jews and Comic Books tells their stories and demonstrates how they brought a uniquely Jewish perspective to their work and to the comics industry as a whole. Over-sized and in full color, From Krakow to Krypton is filled with sidebars, cartoon bubbles, comic book graphics, original design sketches, and photographs. It is a visually stunning and exhilarating history.

The Depiction of Jews as Mice in the Graphic Novel

Author : Julia Holleber

ISBN10 : 3346181499

Publisher : GRIN Verlag

Number of Pages : 15

Category : Literary Criticism

Viewed : 658


Book Summary: Seminar paper from the year 2018 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Literature, grade: 1,3, University of Würzburg, language: English, abstract: This paper will concentrate on the function of the portrayal of Jews as mice in the graphic novel "Maus" by Art Spiegelman as they represent the main characters and, thus, form the focus of the novel. The author proposes that with the depiction of Jews as mice, Spiegelman provides the reader with a more direct way to the material. Moreover, by creating a paradox, he disapproves Hitler’s statement, which is printed in the epigraph of the novel, that "Jews are undoubtedly a race, but they are not human" and by using masks to modify the character’s identity Spiegelman criticizes the Nazi’s racial logic that specific populations have an unchanging character The graphic novel "Maus" by Art Spiegelman has been one of the most popular and deeply discussed comics of the last decades. Being the first graphic novel about the Holocaust, it arose much attention but was also often criticized of not dealing with the topic with enough respect.

Graphic Novels as Philosophy

Author : Jeff McLaughlin

ISBN10 : 1496813308

Publisher : Univ. Press of Mississippi

Number of Pages : 228

Category : Literary Criticism

Viewed : 1257


Book Summary: Contributions by Eric Bain-Selbo, Jeremy Barris, Maria Botero, Manuel "Mandel" Cabrera Jr., David J. Leichter, Ian MacRae, Alfonso Munoz-Corcuera, Corry Shores, and Jarkko S. Tuusvuori In a follow-up to Comics as Philosophy, international contributors address two questions: Which philosophical insights, concepts, and tools can shed light on the graphic novel? And how can the graphic novel cast light on the concerns of philosophy? Each contributor ponders a well-known graphic novel to illuminate ways in which philosophy can untangle particular combinations of image and written word for deeper understanding. Jeff McLaughlin collects a range of essays to examine notable graphic novels within the framework posited by these two questions. One essay discusses how a philosopher discovered that the panels in Jeff Lemire's Essex County do not just replicate a philosophical argument, but they actually give evidence to an argument that could not have existed otherwise. Another essay reveals how Chris Ware's manipulation of the medium demonstrates an important sense of time and experience. Still another describes why Maus tends to be more profound than later works that address the Holocaust because of, not in spite of, the fact that the characters are cartoon animals rather than human. Other works contemplated include Will Eisner's A Contract with God, Alan Moore and David Lloyd's V for Vendetta, Alison Bechdel's Fun Home, and Joe Sacco's Footnotes in Gaza. Mainly, each essay, contributor, graphic novelist, and artist are all doing the same thing: trying to tell us how the world is--at least from their point of view.

We'll Soon Be Home Again

Author : Jessica Bab Bonde

ISBN10 : 1506715664

Publisher : Dark Horse Comics

Number of Pages : 104

Category : Young Adult Nonfiction

Viewed : 1188


Book Summary: The testimonies of six survivors of the Holocaust are presented in comics form, aimed at teenage readers. Some of them were children then, and are still alive to tell what happened to them and their families. How they survived. What they lost--and how you keep on living, despite it all. Jessica Bab Bonde has, based on survivor's stories, written an important book. Peter Bergting's art makes the book accessible, despite its difficult subject. Using first-person point of view allows the stories to get under your skin as survivors describe their persecutions in the Ghetto, the de-humanization and the starvation in the concentration camps, and the industrial-scale mass murder taking place in the extermination camps. When right-wing extremism and antisemitism are being evoked once again, it's the alarm-bell needed to remind us never to forget the horrors of the Holocaust.

Graphic Subjects

Author : Michael A. Chaney

ISBN10 : 0299251039

Publisher : Univ of Wisconsin Press

Number of Pages : 339

Category : Comics & Graphic Novels

Viewed : 617


Book Summary: Some of the most noteworthy graphic novels and comic books of recent years have been entirely autobiographical. In Graphic Subjects, Michael A. Chaney brings together a lively mix of scholars to examine the use of autobiography within graphic novels, including such critically acclaimed examples as Art Spiegelman’s Maus, David Beauchard’s Epileptic, Marjane Satrapi’s Persepolis, Alan Moore’s Watchmen, and Gene Yang’s American Born Chinese. These essays, accompanied by visual examples, illuminate the new horizons that illustrated autobiographical narrative creates. The volume insightfully highlights the ways that graphic novelists and literary cartoonists have incorporated history, experience, and life stories into their work. The result is a challenging and innovative collection that reveals the combined power of autobiography and the graphic novel.

A Comics Studies Reader

Author : Jeet Heer,Kent Worcester

ISBN10 : 1628467053

Publisher : Univ. Press of Mississippi

Number of Pages : 396

Category : Literary Criticism

Viewed : 830


Book Summary: A Comics Studies Reader offers the best of the new comics scholarship in nearly thirty essays on a wide variety of such comics forms as gag cartoons, editorial cartoons, comic strips, comic books, manga, and graphic novels. The anthology covers the pioneering work of Rodolphe Töpffer, the Disney comics of Carl Barks, and the graphic novels of Art Spiegelman and Chris Ware, as well as Peanuts, romance comics, and superheroes. It explores the stylistic achievements of manga, the international anti-comics campaign, and power and class in Mexican comic books and English illustrated stories. A Comics Studies Reader introduces readers to the major debates and points of reference that continue to shape the field. It will interest anyone who wants to delve deeper into the world of comics and is ideal for classroom use.

Handbook of Comics and Graphic Narratives

Author : Sebastian Domsch,Dan Hassler-Forest,Dirk Vanderbeke

ISBN10 : 3110446960

Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

Number of Pages : 644

Category : Comics & Graphic Novels

Viewed : 660


Book Summary: Whether one describes them as sequential art, graphic narratives or graphic novels, comics have become a vital part of contemporary culture. Their range of expression contains a tremendous variety of forms, genres and modes − from high to low, from serial entertainment for children to complex works of art. This has led to a growing interest in comics as a field of scholarly analysis, as comics studies has established itself as a major branch of criticism. This handbook combines a systematic survey of theories and concepts developed in the field alongside an overview of the most important contexts and themes and a wealth of close readings of seminal works and authors. It will prove to be an indispensable handbook for a large readership, ranging from researchers and instructors to students and anyone else with a general interest in this fascinating medium.

The Graphic Novel Classroom

Author : Maureen Bakis

ISBN10 : 1629140880

Publisher : Simon and Schuster

Number of Pages : 176

Category : Education

Viewed : 970


Book Summary: Every teacher knows that keeping adolescents interested in learning can be challenging—The Graphic Novel Classroom overcomes that challenge. In these pages, you will learn how to create your own graphic novel in order to inspire students and make them love reading. Create your own superhero to teach reading, writing, critical thinking, and problem solving! Secondary language arts teacher Maureen Bakis discovered this powerful pedagogy in her own search to engage her students. Amazingly successful results encouraged Bakis to provide this learning tool to other middle and high school teachers so that they might also use this foolproof method to inspire their students. Readers will learn how to incorporate graphic novels into their classrooms in order to: Teach twenty-first-century skills such as interpretation of content and form Improve students’ writing and visual comprehension Captivate both struggling and proficient students in reading Promote authentic literacy learning Develop students’ ability to create in multiple formats This all-encompassing resource includes teaching and learning models, text-specific detailed lesson units, and examples of student work. An effective, contemporary way to improve learning and inspire students to love reading, The Graphic Novel Classroom is the perfect superpower for every teacher of adolescent students!

Distinctive Styles and Authorship in Alternative Comics

Author : Lukas Etter

ISBN10 : 3110693682

Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

Number of Pages : 228

Category : Literary Criticism

Viewed : 1928


Book Summary: Distinctive Styles and Authorship in Alternative Comics addresses the benefits and limits of analyses of style in alternative comics. It offers three close readings of works serially published between 1980 and 2018 – Art Spiegelman’s Maus, Alison Bechdel’s Dykes to Watch Out For, and Jason Lutes’ Berlin – and discusses how artistic style may influence the ways in which readers construct authorship.

Witnessing the Disaster

Author : Michael Bernard-Donals,Richard Glejzer

ISBN10 : 0299183637

Publisher : Univ of Wisconsin Press

Number of Pages : 324

Category : History

Viewed : 1726


Book Summary: Witnessing the Disaster examines how histories, films, stories and novels, memorials and museums, and survivor testimonies involve problems of witnessing: how do those who survived, and those who lived long after the Holocaust, make clear to us what happened? How can we distinguish between more and less authentic accounts? Are histories more adequate descriptors of the horror than narrative? Does the susceptibility of survivor accounts to faulty memory and the vestiges of trauma make them any more or less useful as instruments of witness? And how do we authenticate their accuracy without giving those who deny the Holocaust a small but dangerous foothold? These essayists aim to move past the notion that the Holocaust as an event defies representation. They look at specific cases of Holocaust representation and consider their effect, their structure, their authenticity, and the kind of knowledge they produce. Taken together they consider the tension between history and memory, the vexed problem of eyewitness testimony and its status as evidence, and the ethical imperatives of Holocaust representation.

The Representation of Genocide in Graphic Novels

Author : Laurike in 't Veld

ISBN10 : 303003626X

Publisher : Springer

Number of Pages : 230

Category : Social Science

Viewed : 402


Book Summary: This book mobilises the concept of kitsch to investigate the tensions around the representation of genocide in international graphic novels that focus on the Holocaust and the genocides in Armenia, Rwanda, and Bosnia. In response to the predominantly negative readings of kitsch as meaningless or inappropriate, this book offers a fresh approach that considers how some of the kitsch strategies employed in these works facilitate an affective interaction with the genocide narrative. These productive strategies include the use of the visual metaphors of the animal and the doll figure and the explicit and excessive depictions of mass violence. The book also analyses where kitsch still produces problems as it critically examines depictions of perpetrators and the visual and verbal representations of sexual violence. Furthermore, it explores how graphic novels employ anti-kitsch strategies to avoid the dangers of excess in dealing with genocide. The Representation of Genocide in Graphic Novels will appeal to those working in comics-graphic novel studies, popular culture studies, and Holocaust and genocide studies.

On the Animal Masks in the Autobiographical Graphic Novel

Author : Özlem Arslan

ISBN10 : 3346023508

Publisher : GRIN Verlag

Number of Pages : 12

Category : Literary Collections

Viewed : 399


Book Summary: Seminar paper from the year 2019 in the subject American Studies - Literature, grade: 1,3, University of Wuppertal (Geistes- und Kulturwissenschaften), course: The Holocaust in Eastern Europe in History and American Literature, language: English, abstract: This term paper aims to examine the function of the animal masks in Art Spiegelman’s graphic novel "Maus" with the question in mind whether it trivializes the Holocaust or not. The paper will begin with an introduction to the different types of animal heads and the possible reasons for the choice of the artist by giving some historical background. The main part will discuss the use of the animal masks and its functions by analyzing significant panels from "MAUS". Finally, the paper will also contain a conclusion in which the results will be summarized. "MAUS" is an autobiographically written graphic novel by Art Spiegelman which consists of two parts, "Maus I" (1986) and "Maus II" (1992), and tells the story of the artist’s parents, Anja and Vladek, who survived the Holocaust and the reader also gets a view on the afterlife of Vladek and his relationship with his son "Artie". Art Spiegelman received a lot of praise and was celebrated in the press for his work. Amongst other achievements, he was honored with the Pulitzer Prize for "MAUS" in 1992. However, his graphic novel was also criticized for the use of animal masks for the characters. To elaborate on this, Spiegelman chose to depict the affiliation to a religion or culture of characters by using animal make in the past and present time of the graphic novel. For example, cats for Germans, mice for Jews and pigs for Poles. Especially the representation of Jews as mice and Poles as pigs caused many negative critiques from Jewish and Polish people themselves. Furthermore, Spiegelman’s presentation method was criticized for naturalizing something unnatural, which means it was perceived as trivializing the Holocaust and by that insulting the victims. Even though the use of animal masks was criticized for in a way trivializing the Holocaust, one could also argue that the animal heads function as a medium to demonstrate the racist ideology of the Nazis and the hierarchies during that time. In addition, one could also argue that the presence of the animal heads in the present time of the graphic novel indicate the effects and consequences for the persons related after the Holocaust. These different perspectives on this topic raised the question of whether the graphic novel really trivializes the Holocaust or not.


Author : Noelle Stevenson

ISBN10 : 006227824X

Publisher : HarperCollins

Number of Pages : 272

Category : Young Adult Fiction

Viewed : 1287


Book Summary: Fans of Noelle Stevenson's beloved and bestselling Nimona won't want to miss her brand-new moving memoir-in-pictures, The Fire Never Goes Out, featuring short essays, mini-comics, and photographs that span eight eventful years in Noelle's young adult life. Nimona is the New York Times bestselling graphic novel sensation from Noelle Stevenson, based on her beloved and critically acclaimed web comic. Kirkus says, “If you’re going to read one graphic novel this year, make it this one.” Nemeses! Dragons! Science! Symbolism! All these and more await in this brilliantly subversive, sharply irreverent epic from Noelle Stevenson. Featuring an exclusive epilogue not seen in the web comic, along with bonus conceptual sketches and revised pages throughout, this gorgeous full-color graphic novel has been hailed by critics and fans alike as the arrival of a “superstar” talent ( Nimona is an impulsive young shapeshifter with a knack for villainy. Lord Ballister Blackheart is a villain with a vendetta. As sidekick and supervillain, Nimona and Lord Blackheart are about to wreak some serious havoc. Their mission: prove to the kingdom that Sir Ambrosius Goldenloin and his buddies at the Institution of Law Enforcement and Heroics aren't the heroes everyone thinks they are. But as small acts of mischief escalate into a vicious battle, Lord Blackheart realizes that Nimona's powers are as murky and mysterious as her past. And her unpredictable wild side might be more dangerous than he is willing to admit. Indies Choice Book of the Year * National Book Award Finalist * New York Times Bestseller * New York Times Notable Book * Kirkus Best Book * School Library Journal Best Book * Publishers Weekly Best Book * NPR Best Book * New York Public Library Best Book * Chicago Public Library Best Book

Political Equality in Transnational Democracy

Author : E. Erman,S. Nasstrom

ISBN10 : 1137372249

Publisher : Springer

Number of Pages : 190

Category : Political Science

Viewed : 1223


Book Summary: This book is about the status of political equality under global political conditions. If political equality generally is considered a core feature of democracy, it has received little attention among theorists concerned with global governance. Given the enormous emphasis on democracy as legitimizing factor in global politics, this neglect is noteworthy. This book sets out to address what accounts for the neglect, on the one hand, and how it may be remedied, on the other. The overall aim is to revitalize the debate on the status of political equality in transnational democracy.

Reise Know-How Wohnmobil-Tourguide Oberitalien – Download (PDF)

Author : Michael Moll

ISBN10 : 3831752036

Publisher : Reise Know-How Verlag Peter Rump

Number of Pages : 260

Category : Travel

Viewed : 1144


Book Summary: Dieser Wohnmobil-Tourguide ist der ideale Begleiter, um die schönsten Regionen in Oberitalien zu erkunden. Neun detaillierte Routenbeschreibungen - über dreihundert Camping-, Stellplatz- und Parkplatzbeschreibungen inkl. GPS-Daten und Anfahrt - über 30 Seiten Routenatlas - landschaftliche Höhepunkte in den Alpen, am Mittelmeer und an der Adria, sehenswerte Kultur in Städten wie Ravenna, Venedig, Verona, Mailand und Turin, charmante Bergdörfer und vielseitige Abwechslung - wertvolle Tipps für Restaurantbesuche und den Kauf lokaler Produkte. Ob erfahrener Wohnmobilist, langjähriger Camper oder Neueinsteiger: Dieses Buch verbindet erholsame Urlaubsparadiese an den Oberitalienischen Seen mit der reichhaltigen Kultur in den malerischen Altstädten der Po-Ebene. Neun kombinierbare Routen leiten über die Pässe und durch die Täler der italienischen Alpen zum beliebten Lago Maggiore, zum Gardasee und zum Comer See. Sie führen weiter durch die Po-Ebene bis Cinque Terre an die ligurische Mittelmeerküste und nach Venezien, wo man das Wohnmobil kurzzeitig mit einer Gondel tauschen kann. Dazwischen laden faszinierende Landschaften, erlebnisreiche Wanderungen und kulturelle Highlights zu spannenden Entdeckungen ein. Aus dem Inhalt: - Neun detailliert ausgearbeitete und kombinierbare Routenvorschläge - Park-, Camping- und Stellplätze mit allen Details - Stadtbesichtigungen mit geeigneten Stell- und Parkplätzen - Sehenswürdigkeiten, Restaurants und Einkaufsmöglichkeiten - Übersichtliche Stadtpläne, abgestimmt mit dem Text - Über 30 Seiten Routenatlas mit Campingplätzen - Durchgängig GPS-Daten - Ver- und Entsorgungsstellen entlang der Routen - Ratschläge zur Sicherheit und Pannenhilfe - Kurzweilige Exkurse zu historischen und kulturellen Themen - Deutsch-Italienisch-Wörterliste mit speziellem Womo-Vokabular Wohnmobil-Tourguide - die aktuellen Bordbücher von Reise Know-How zu den beliebtesten Wohnmobil-Regionen Europas. Fundiert, übersichtlich, praktisch. Mit exakten Routenkarten und Stadtplänen, stimmungsvollen Fotos, strapazierfähiger Bindung, GPS-Stellplatzdaten zum Herunterladen ...

Handbook of Linguistic Annotation

Author : Nancy Ide,James Pustejovsky

ISBN10 : 9402408819

Publisher : Springer

Number of Pages : 1459

Category : Language Arts & Disciplines

Viewed : 1805


Book Summary: This handbook offers a thorough treatment of the science of linguistic annotation. Leaders in the field guide the reader through the process of modeling, creating an annotation language, building a corpus and evaluating it for correctness. Essential reading for both computer scientists and linguistic researchers.Linguistic annotation is an increasingly important activity in the field of computational linguistics because of its critical role in the development of language models for natural language processing applications. Part one of this book covers all phases of the linguistic annotation process, from annotation scheme design and choice of representation format through both the manual and automatic annotation process, evaluation, and iterative improvement of annotation accuracy. The second part of the book includes case studies of annotation projects across the spectrum of linguistic annotation types, including morpho-syntactic tagging, syntactic analyses, a range of semantic analyses (semantic roles, named entities, sentiment and opinion), time and event and spatial analyses, and discourse level analyses including discourse structure, co-reference, etc. Each case study addresses the various phases and processes discussed in the chapters of part one.

Radicais Livres

Author : Ohara Augusto

ISBN10 : 8579751454

Publisher : Oficina de Textos

Number of Pages : 120

Category : Science

Viewed : 1919


Book Summary: Radicais livres são bons e até mesmo essenciais ao nosso organismo, porque participam do combate a infecções e da procriação de nossa espécie. Parece estranho? Pode ser. A mídia explora muito o lado vilão dos radicais livres, principalmente seu envolvimento com doenças e envelhecimento. Mas, antes de tudo, os radicais livres são naturais e são produzidos continuamente nos seres vivos. Radicais Livres: bons, maus e naturais veio esclarecer as dúvidas mais comuns sobre o assunto: como se formam no organismo? Há dieta que minimize seus efeitos negativos? Como é possível detectá-los? Antioxidantes são bons à nossa saúde? É verdade que os radicais livres são rentáveis para a indústria química? Escrito por Ohara Augusto, importante pesquisadora brasileira com reconhecimento internacional e coordenadora de um Instituto do Milênio do Ministério de Ciência e Tecnologia, este livro mostra, além dos mecanismos de funcionamento dos radicais livres, os resultados das mais modernas pesquisas que vêm sendo desenvolvidas nessa área. A autora também nos permite compartilhar de sua história profissional e do que é ser uma cientista no Brasil. Esse é o terceiro livro da Série Inventando o Futuro, que dá um panorama contemporâneo dos avanços e dos desafios a serem enfrentados em diversas áreas da Ciência e da Tecnologia modernas. Os livros dessa série mostram como é fascinante o mundo da ciência que supera a própria imaginação.

Enabling Innovation

Author : Sabina Jeschke,Ingrid Isenhardt,Frank Hees,Sven Trantow

ISBN10 : 364224503X

Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media

Number of Pages : 488

Category : Business & Economics

Viewed : 1150


Book Summary: The capability to innovate in an on-going manner is emerging as a decisive key factor in today's world of business and work. The ability to stay competitive is becoming identical with the ability to innovate. This book originated from the research and development project “International Monitoring” and outlines the topic of innovative capability from a practice-oriented angle. Contributions of German and international experts offer an enlightening glimpse behind the scenes of innovations. The central issue is not the description of features of successful innovation processes or how innovations can be efficiently controlled and managed, but under which conditions they can emerge in the first place. In what way can individuals, organizations, networks and societies be enabled to continuously induce innovations?

Transforming Technologies to Manage Our Information

Author : William Jones

ISBN10 : 162705409X

Publisher : Morgan & Claypool Publishers

Number of Pages : 179

Category : Computers

Viewed : 958


Book Summary: With its theme, "Our Information, Always and Forever," Part I of this book covers the basics of personal information management (PIM) including six essential activities of PIM and six (different) ways in which information can be personal to us. Part I then goes on to explore key issues that arise in the "great migration" of our information onto the Web and into a myriad of mobile devices. Part 2 provides a more focused look at technologies for managing information that promise to profoundly alter our practices of PIM and, through these practices, the way we lead our lives. Part 2 is in five chapters: - Chapter 5. Technologies of Input and Output. Technologies in support of gesture, touch, voice, and even eye movements combine to support a more natural user interface (NUI). Technologies of output include glasses and "watch" watches. Output will also increasingly be animated with options to "zoom". - Chapter 6. Technologies to Save Our Information. We can opt for "life logs" to record our experiences with increasing fidelity. What will we use these logs for? And what isn’t recorded that should be? - Chapter 7. Technologies to Search Our Information. The potential for personalized search is enormous and mostly yet to be realized. Persistent searches, situated in our information landscape, will allow us to maintain a diversity of projects and areas of interest without a need to continually switch from one to another to handle incoming information. - Chapter 8. Technologies to Structure Our Information. Structure is key if we are to keep, find, and make effective use of our information. But how best to structure? And how best to share structured information between the applications we use, with other people, and also with ourselves over time? What lessons can we draw from the failures and successes in web-based efforts to share structure? - Chapter 9. PIM Transformed and Transforming: Stories from the Past, Present and Future. Part 2 concludes with a comparison between Licklider’s world of information in 1957 and our own world of information today. And then we consider what the world of information is likely to look like in 2057. Licklider estimated that he spent 85% of his "thinking time" in activities that were clerical and mechanical and might (someday) be delegated to the computer. What percentage of our own time is spent with the clerical and mechanical? What about in 2057? Table of Contents: Technologies of Input and Output / Technologies to Save Our Information / Technologies to Search Our Information / Technologies to Structure Our Information / PIM Transformed and Transforming: Stories from the Past, Present, and Future