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The Soul of Soil

Author : ,

ISBN10 : 1603581243

Publisher : Chelsea Green Publishing

Number of Pages : 173

Category : Gardening

Viewed : 1473

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Book Summary: Soil is the basis not only for all gardening, but for all terrestrial life. No aspect of agriculture is more fundamental and important, yet we have been losing vast quantities of our finite soil resources to erosion, pollution, and development. Now back in print, this eminently sensible and wonderfully well-focused book provides essential information about one of the most significant challenges for those attempting to grow delicious organic vegetables: the creation and maintenance of healthy soil. Chapter 2, "Understanding the Soil System," is alone worth the price of admission. Gershuny and Smillie give lay readers and experts a clear explanation of subjects--soil life and nutrient cycles--that have confounded most authors. Nowhere will the reader find simpler and more coherent descriptions of key concepts including cation exchange capacity and chelation. There are other books about soil available, including Grace Gershuny's comprehensive Start with the Soil, and there are books that feature chapters on soil building. What distinguishes The Soil of Soilis the authors' concise presentation; they give readers important information, including technical essentials, without getting bogged down in scientific or quasiscientific mumbo-jumbo. In addition, useful tables list specific compost materials, green manures, and other resources that allow growers to translate into action the more general information provided by the book. The soil-building techniques featured include: Organic matter management Building and maintaining humus On-site composting Green manures and rotations Cultivation and weed control Nutrient balances and soil testing Using mineral fertilizers Planning for organic certification Updates to the 1999 edition include analysis of Proposed Rules for the National Organic Standards, and expanded recommendations for private testing services and soil-testing equipment for home gardeners and organic farmers. All of us involved in the cultivation of plants--from the backyard gardener to the largest farmer--need to help regenerate a "living soil," for only in the diversity of the soil and its creatures can we ensure the long-term health of ourselves and our environment. The Soul of Soil offers everyone a basic understanding of what soil is and what we can do to improve our own patch of it. Seen in this light, this practical handbook will be an inspiration as well.

Science, Policy and Politics of Modern Agricultural System

Author : Mohamed Behnassi,Shabbir A. Shahid,Nazia Mintz-Habib

ISBN10 : 9400779577

Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media

Number of Pages : 380

Category : Nature

Viewed : 1298

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Book Summary: This book arises from a 2011 international conference entitled Climate Change, Agri-Food, Fisheries and Ecosystems: Reinventing Research, Innovation, and Policy Agendas for an Environmentally and Socially-Balanced Growth (ICCAFFE2011), organized by the North-South Center for Social Sciences (NRCS) in collaboration with the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Germany and the Institute for Research and Development (IRD), France. Coverage focuses on the agricultural sector and helps improve understanding of the relationships between agriculture and the environment and between human communities and nature, so as to sustainably manage agricultural development. The contributors analyze the interdependence between sustainable agricultural development and environmental, economic and social dynamics; assess the impacts of soil degradation on agricultural productivity; present ways to enhance livestock production and recommend mechanisms for managing links between agro-biodiversity, climate change and livelihoods. Part I examines sustainable agriculture development and environmental, economic and social dynamics, addressing topics such as global climate change, agriculture and challenges including socio-economic factors, adaptation, poverty reduction and water management. Part II covers the impacts of soil degradation on agricultural productivity and discusses the use of expert systems to assess and manage degraded lands, agricultural productivity, land suitability and rehabilitation. Part III focuses on livestock production enhancements, such as feed resources and supplemental feeds for animals and capacity building for women in dairy management. Part IV shares the outcomes of research in agro-biodiversity, climate change and livelihoods, addressing topics such as co-management of forests, carbon consumption models, biodiversity conservation and carbon sequestration and scarce mangrove forests. Current environmental and agro-ecological research focuses on understanding the cause-consequence relationships between specific agricultural practices and land use and the responses at different levels of ecosystems. This book is intended to contribute to this discussion.

New Forests

Author : Sadanandan Nambiar,Ian Ferguson

ISBN10 : 0643099328

Publisher : CSIRO PUBLISHING

Number of Pages : 256

Category : Technology & Engineering

Viewed : 1631

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Book Summary: There is no question that the timber industry needs to adopt sustainable practices that ensure a future for the industry. This book goes well beyond simply growing commercial tree plantations for wood production. It explores new forests that can supply environmental services such as salinity mitigation and carbon sequestration together with commercial wood production in an environment beyond the boundaries of traditional forestry. New Forests targets agricultural landscapes affected by salinity and which generally have rainfall less than 650 mm per year. The book addresses vital issues such as where tree planting might best be pursued, what species and technologies should be used for establishment and later management, how productivity can be improved, what mix of environmental services and commercial goods is optimum, and whether the likely net benefits justify the change in land use and requisite investment. While the book is focussed on the low-rainfall, agricultural, inland zone of the Murray-Darling Basin wherever possible the scope of most chapters has been expanded to synthesise generic information applicable to other regions in Australia and elsewhere. The authors provide a comprehensive account of all the issues relevant to the development of these new forests, covering soils, the bio-physical environment, water use and irrigation strategies - including the use of wastewater, silviculture, pests and diseases, wood quality and products, and economics and policy implications.

The Soils of the Philippines

Author : Rodelio B. Carating,Raymundo G. Galanta,Clarita D. Bacatio

ISBN10 : 9401786828

Publisher : Springer Science & Business

Number of Pages : 346

Category : Nature

Viewed : 863

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Book Summary: The first soil survey in the Philippines was done by Mr. Clarence Dorsey, an American soil scientist in the province of Batangas in 1903. The Soils of the Philippines, however, is the first comprehensive summary of more than a century of soil-survey work in this country. It integrates the soil concepts of the reconnaissance soil-survey results, which commenced as early as 1934 and continued until the mid 1960s, with the semi-detailed soil surveys that continue to this day. The result is the first-ever genetic key for classifying Philippine soils at soil series level; thus, making it possible for any newcomers to the soil survey field to confidently produce their own soil map, at a more detailed map scale, to suit the project requirements. This book brings together discussions on soils and soil mapping units and up-to-date international techniques and technologies. It makes soils relevant to current political realities and national issues. As soil survey moves from a reductionist agricultural-development planning tool to a more holistic and integrated approach, to enable us to understand our dynamic and complex environment, The Soils of the Philippines will be the only source of authoritative and updated data on soil resources for macro-level resource management planning for decades to come. With a vanishing breed of experienced soil surveyors, not only in the Philippines but also worldwide, it may remain the only book on Philippine soils for the next hundred years or more. Since soils follow a geological and not a human time frame, the contents of this volume will stay relevant for soil surveyors even in a fast changing world. As the country leaps from an agricultural economy towards modernization and a more diversified economic base, some of the soil series in the Philippines, for example the Guadalupe series underlying the skyscrapers of Makati City, are becoming extinct as a result of urban development. Therefore, this book serves as the repository for the soils that we possess, the soils that have been lost through decades of urbanization while, at the same time, it creates a soil classification system for the soils we are yet to discover.

Agricultural Water Management

Author : A. L. Van Wijk,Wesseling J.

ISBN10 : 1000108341

Publisher : CRC Press

Number of Pages : 335

Category : Technology & Engineering

Viewed : 818

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Book Summary: This book is an outcome of the symposium on agricultural water management in Netherlands and discusses the methods that leads to cost effective but environmentally acceptable techniques. The book covers following topics: drainage and reclamation of soil and effect of drainage on agriculture.

Interpreting Soil Test Results

Author : Pam Hazelton,Brian Murphy

ISBN10 : 0643099158

Publisher : CSIRO PUBLISHING

Number of Pages : 160

Category : Science

Viewed : 955

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Book Summary: Interpreting Soil Test Results is a practical reference for those who need to interpret results from laboratory analysis of soil. It has a comprehensive listing of the soil properties relevant to most environmental and natural land resource issues and investigations. The precursor to this book, What Do All the Numbers Mean?, known as The Numbers Book, was widely used and accepted for interpreting soil test results. This new edition has been completely updated and many sections have been expanded, particularly those on acid sulfate soils and soil salinity. It is a handy and straightforward guide to interpretation of the numbers associated with a wide range of soil tests.

The Self-Sufficient Life and How to Live It

Author : John Seymour

ISBN10 : 1465483535

Publisher : Penguin

Number of Pages : 408

Category : Self-Help

Viewed : 1134

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Book Summary: The bestselling classic guide to off-grid green living, now with a brand new foreword from Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall. John Seymour has inspired thousands to make more responsible, enriching, and eco-friendly choices with his advice on living sustainably. The Self-sufficient Life and How to Live It offers step-by-step instructions on everything from chopping trees to harnessing solar power; from growing your own vegetables and fruit, and preserving and pickling your harvest, to baking bread, brewing beer, and making cheese. Seymour shows you how to live off the land, running your own smallholding or homestead, keeping chickens, and raising (and butchering) livestock. While we aren't all be able to move to the countryside, we can appreciate the importance of Seymour's message, as he shows us the value of living within our means and making the most of what we have, to use skills that have been handed down through generations. With refreshed, retro-style illustrations and a brand-new foreword by Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, this new edition of Seymour's classic title is a balm for anyone who has ever sought solace away from the madness of modern life.

Trace Elements in Soil

Author : I.K. Iskandar,Mary B. Kirkham

ISBN10 : 1420032739

Publisher : CRC Press

Number of Pages : 304

Category : Technology & Engineering

Viewed : 1022

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Book Summary: Historically, research on the methods and amounts of trace element application to agriculture soils for correcting plant deficiencies has received major attention. More recently, due to industrial development and past disposal activities, trace elements are considered to be important environmental contaminants that affect all components in the atmosphere and in aquatic and terrestrial systems. Prepared by a multi-disciplinary group of scientists, Trace Elements in Soil: Bioavailability, Flux, and Transfer explores and discusses emerging issues in biogeochemistry research. The book emphasizes the role of biological and chemical interactions and discusses the newest research and its application to major environmental problems. It provides a concise compilation of current research and a handy, time-saving reference. With contributions from an international panel of authors, the book focuses on trace element issues in developing countries and environmentally sound techniques such as stabilization and bioremediation. Fundamental yet complex, bioavailability can be relatively simple to parameterize under controlled simulated conditions. This is not always the case under field conditions. To expand our understanding of the fate and transport of trace elements in soils, the methods of assessing trace element bioavailability, flux, and transfer among the different soil components needs to be redefined and developed. Trace Elements in Soil: Bioavailability, Flux, and Transfer is unique in its emphasis on bioavailability and how trace element contamination ultimately effects plants, wildlife, and human population.

Sustainable Building with Earth

Author : Horst Schroeder

ISBN10 : 3319194917

Publisher : Springer

Number of Pages : 560

Category : Technology & Engineering

Viewed : 1818

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Book Summary: This book provides an insightful overview of the current state of earth building. The author approaches the subject from the perspective of the building material’s life cycle, featuring in-depth explanations of the cycle's individual steps: extraction and classification of construction soil; production of earth building materials and earthen structures; planning, construction and renovation of earth buildings; and demolition and recycling of earthen structures. This unique resource provides examples of sophisticated earth building projects and illustrates the diverse applications of earth as a building material. Compared to conventional mineral building materials, earth possesses particularly positive ecological qualities such as its energy balance and recyclability. Architects, engineers, students, manufacturers and distributors of building materials, building contractors, building biologists, public authorities and preservationists will benefit from this book’s ample coverage of restoring, optimizing and building with this material of the past, present and future.

Australian Soils and Landscapes

Author : Neil McKenzie,David Jacquier,Ray Isbell,Katharine Brown

ISBN10 : 064310433X

Publisher : CSIRO PUBLISHING

Number of Pages : 432

Category : Science

Viewed : 1286

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Book Summary: This essential reference provides an introduction to the remarkable soils and landscapes of Australia. It reveals their great diversity and explains why an understanding of soil properties and landscape processes should guide our use of the land. Using striking photographs of characteristic landscapes, it begins by describing the basic properties of soils and how Australia's distinctive soils and landscapes have co-evolved. We gain a greater understanding of why particular soils occur at certain locations and how soil variation can influence landscape processes, agricultural productivity and ecosystem function. The book explains the impact of various forms of land use and the changes they can bring about in soil. This is followed by an invaluable compendium that describes and illustrates over 100 of the more important and widespread soils of Australia, along with their associated landscapes. There is a brief account of each soil's environment, usage and qualities as well as details on chemical and physical properties so we can make more informed decisions about appropriate land-use. Australian Soils and Landscapes will be a valuable resource for farmers, natural resource managers, soil and environmental scientists, students and anyone with an interest in Australia's unique environment.

Concise Guide to Self-Sufficiency

Author : John Seymour

ISBN10 : 0756647541

Publisher : Penguin

Number of Pages : 256

Category : Crafts & Hobbies

Viewed : 1576

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Book Summary: Teaching all the skills needed to live independently in harmony with the land, from harnessing natural forms of energy and raising cropsto keeping livestock and preserving foodstuffs, this John Seymour classic is still the most practical guide for realists and dreamers alike. John Seymour authored over 40 books, including the DK’s best-selling Complete Book of Self-Sufficiency and The Forgotten Arts & Crafts. He died in the fall of 2004 at the age of 90.

Elsevier's Dictionary of Soil Science

Author : A. Canarache,I.I. Vintila,I. Munteanu

ISBN10 : 0080561314

Publisher : Elsevier

Number of Pages : 1360

Category : Science

Viewed : 527

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Book Summary: This dictionary includes some 9200 terms, each with a definition and often and additional descriptive text in English, the terms being translated in French, German and Spanish. It is more complete than similar previously published dictionaries or glossaries, and contains all fields of soil science as well as some adjacent fields of other earth sciences, agriculture and engineering. Present concepts and definitions are detailed along with earlier concepts, not only for historical reasons but also for developing new ideas. Concepts, terms and definitions usual in literature of various countries are discussed and compared, to offer an appropriate exchange of ideas. Soil classifications and methodologies for soil investigation coming from a score of European, American and other countries and international organisations are presented, and correlations between names of soil taxa in different classifications are suggested. Readers active in all branches of soil science will find accessible answers to many of their questions, either directly referring to procedures used in the organisations where they work, or related to way of thinking in other countries. Readers active in other branches, but needing information on soils, will also find answers to this dictionary of great assistance to their research. * Over 9200 terms with definitions in English and translations in French, German, Spanish * Includes all fields of soil science and many connected sciences * All present-day terminology with inclusion of earlier, classical concepts and terms * Terminology in current USDA Soil Taxonomy, FAO World Reference Base or Soil Resources, and other documents from different countries Granted the "N.Cernescu" award from the Romanian Academy on Agricultural and Forestry Sciences

Heart & Soil

Author : Des Kennedy

ISBN10 : 155017634X

Publisher : Harbour Publishing

Number of Pages : 224

Category : Gardening

Viewed : 1934

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Book Summary: Writer, environmentalist and gardener Des Kennedy has gathered together his best, most outrageous and most contemplative articles and essays of the past decade into a book full of playful wit and insight. Kennedy recounts one newspaper’s April Fool’s Day prank that had men across the UK buying heather in order to propagate a poor-man’s Viagra, expands on his trials creating a sod sloped roof, admits he once wanted to write a stump-puller’s guide to the universe and contemplates the dark beauty—and rat feces smell—of a voodoo lily. The articles are tied together with Kennedy’s assertion that gardening is a revolutionary act of maintaining harmony with nature that intertwines the human spirit with the natural world. A book that will appeal to any who admire earth’s raw beauty, Heart and Soil is a collection from a respected Canadian who has dedicated his life to protecting and respecting the environment, cultivating his passion with a healthy sprinkling of humour.

Advances in Ceramics for Environmental, Functional, Structural, and Energy Applications

Author : Morsi M. Mahmoud,Kumar Sridharan,Henry Colorado,Amar S. Bhalla,J. P. Singh,Surojit Gupta,Jason Langhorn,Andrei Jitianu,Navin Jose Manjooran

ISBN10 : 1119543282

Publisher : John Wiley & Sons

Number of Pages : 240

Category : Technology & Engineering

Viewed : 1012

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Book Summary: This volume contains 20 manuscripts presented during the Materials Science & Technology 2017 Conference (MS&T'17), held October 8-12, 2017 at the David L. Lawrence Convention Center, Pittsburgh, PA. Papers from the following symposia are included in this volume: 9th International Symposium on Green and Sustainable Technologies for Materials Manufacturing and Processing Advances in Dielectric Materials and Electronic Devices Construction and Building Materials for a Better Environment Innovative Processing and Synthesis of Ceramics, Glasses and Composites Materials Issues in Nuclear Waste Management in the 21st Century Materials Development for Nuclear Applications and Extreme Environments Materials for Nuclear Energy Applications Nanotechnology for Energy, Healthcare and Industry Processing and Performance of Materials Using Microwaves, Electric and Magnetic Fields, Ultrasound, Lasers, and Mechanical Work – Rustum Roy Symposium These symposia provided a forum for scientists, engineers, and technologists to discuss and exchange state-of-the-art ideas, information, and technology on advanced methods and approaches for processing, synthesis, characterization, and applications of ceramics, glasses, and composites. Each manuscript was peer-reviewed using The American Ceramic Society's review process. The editors wish to extend their gratitude and appreciation to their symposium co-organizers, to all of the authors for their valuable submissions, to all the participants and session chairs for their time and effort, and to all the reviewers for their comments and suggestions. We hope that this volume will serve as a useful reference for the professionals working in the field of materials science.

Atmospheric Greenhouse Gases: The Hungarian Perspective

Author : László Haszpra

ISBN10 : 9789048199501

Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media

Number of Pages : 393

Category : Science

Viewed : 597

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Book Summary: Human induced global climate change is the biggest challenge humankind faces today. Increasing amount of atmospheric greenhouse gases play a crucial role in the evolution of the climate. Without the understanding of the contributing processes, feedbacks and interactions we cannot predict the future changes and develop effective mitigation strategies. To decrease the uncertainty of the global studies detailed regional studies are needed surveying the regional characteristics of the atmospheric greenhouse gas budget and the influencing factors. Atmospheric Greenhouse Gases: The Hungarian Perspective covers a coherent subset of the Hungarian climate change oriented research that is directly related to greenhouse gases. Topics discussed in the book range from the monitoring of the concentrations and fluxes of atmospheric greenhouse gases, through the modeling of atmosphere-biosphere interaction and greenhouse gas exchange processes, to the review of the anthropogenic contribution of Hungary to the greenhouse gas budget of the atmosphere. The studies call the attention to the regional properties which may modulate the European scale or global picture on the variation of atmospheric greenhouse gases.

The Grape Grower

Author : Lon Rombough

ISBN10 : 1603580824

Publisher : Chelsea Green Publishing

Number of Pages : 304

Category : Gardening

Viewed : 1448

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Book Summary: Grapes are the most popular and widely grown fruit in the world. From the tropics to Alaska, grapes will grow successfully in almost every climate. Whether you raise them for fresh eating, or for making wine, juice, or jellies and preserves, the right grapes will reward you with abundant crops for a modest investment of time and effort. Now for the first time comes a book for grape growers who wish to use organic growing methods to raise healthy, thriving vineyards in the backyard or on a small commercial scale. The Grape Grower distills the broad knowledge and long-time personal experience of Lon Rombough, one of North America's foremost authorities on viticulture. From finding and preparing the right site for your vineyard to training, trellising, and pruning vines to growing new grapes from seeds and cuttings, The Grape Grower offers thorough and accessible information on all the basics. The chapters on grape species, varieties, and hybrids are alone worth the price of a college course in viticulture. Technical information on the major (and minor) insect pests and diseases that affect grapes, as well as their organic controls, makes this book an invaluable reference that readers will turn to again and again. Rombaugh also provides a wealth of information on hardy but little-known grapes that are native to North America, and on a wide range of topics, including: pruning neglected or overgrown vines growing grapes on arbors and in greenhouses controlling animal pests in the vineyard bunch grapes and muscadine grapes for the South winter protection, and how to increase the hardiness of grapes creating your own new varieties

Vertisols and Technologies for their Management

Author : N. Ahmad,A. Mermut

ISBN10 : 9780080543529

Publisher : Elsevier

Number of Pages : 548

Category : Technology & Engineering

Viewed : 1978

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Book Summary: Vertisols, one of the eleven established soil orders, are clay soils with unusual and interesting properties. They cover more than 350 million hectares of land in the world and in tropical Africa alone there are over 100 million hectares. Because of their very small particle size and high surface area, these soils have higher physical and chemical reactivity than other soils. Their interaction with agrochemicals/industrial wastes, has been, increasingly, the subject of research especially in the last two decades. Vertisols create special problems when used for engineering purposes. This book is intended to provide comprehensive and state-of-the-art information about Vertisols worldwide. Special attention is given to the use and management of soils such as fertilizer use, crop selection, soil tillage, water restriction on land including irrigation, and soil erosion. A special chapter has been added to deal with geotechnical engineering of Vertisols. Vertisols have great potential for agricultural production but many, especially in the developing world, are underutilized due to a lack of understanding regarding their behaviour and management. This book is written by leading scientists worldwide. It is expected that this monograph will be of great use to soil scientists and agronomists, graduate and senior graduate students. Improvement of their management may solve the current food deficiency in the world.

Advanced Ceramic Materials

Author : Ashutosh Tiwari,Rosario A. Gerhardt,Magdalena Szutkowska

ISBN10 : 1119242738

Publisher : John Wiley & Sons

Number of Pages : 448

Category : Technology & Engineering

Viewed : 1820

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Book Summary: Ceramic materials are inorganic and non-metallic porcelains, tiles, enamels, cements, glasses and refractory bricks. Today, "ceramics" has gained a wider meaning as a new generation of materials influence on our lives; electronics, computers, communications, aerospace and other industries rely on a number of their uses. In general, advanced ceramic materials include electro-ceramics, optoelectronic-ceramics, superconductive ceramics and the more recent development of piezoelectric and dielectric ceramics. They can be considered for their features including mechanical properties, decorative textures, environmental uses, energy applications, as well as their usage in bio-ceramics, composites, functionally graded materials, intelligent ceramics and so on. Advanced Ceramic Materials brings together a group of subject matter experts who describe innovative methodologies and strategies adopted in the research and development of the advanced ceramic materials. The book is written for readers from diverse backgrounds across chemistry, physics, materials science and engineering, medical science, pharmacy, environmental technology, biotechnology, and biomedical engineering. It offers a comprehensive view of cutting-edge research on ceramic materials and technologies. Divided into 3 parts concerning design, composites and functionality, the topics discussed include: Chemical strategies of epitaxial oxide ceramics nanomaterials Biphasic, triphasic and multiphasic calcium orthophosphates Microwave assisted processing of advanced ceramic composites Continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites Yytria and magnesia doped alumina ceramic Oxidation induced crack healing SWCNTs vs MWCNTs reinforcement agents Organic and inorganic wastes in clay brick production Functional tantalum oxides Application of silver tin research on hydroxyapatite

Field Guide to Urban Gardening

Author : Kevin Espiritu

ISBN10 : 0760363978

Publisher : Cool Springs Press

Number of Pages : 224

Category : Gardening

Viewed : 1331

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Book Summary: In Field Guide to Urban Gardening, author Kevin Espiritu of Epic Gardening shares the basics of growing plants, offers tips on how to choose the right urban gardening method, and troubleshoots the most common problems you’ll encounter. If you think it’s impossible to grow your own food because you don’t have a large yard or you live in the city…think again. There is a plethora of urban gardening options to create beautiful, productive edible gardens no matter where you live. The key to succeeding as an urban gardener is to choose the method(s) that make sense for your unique living situation and then give your plants what they need to thrive. Kevin helps you do just that. But he doesn’t stop there. He also provides in-depth garden plans, from upcycled DIY projects and intensive hydroponic systems to beautiful and functional raised beds. Urban gardening is a real, growing, and important movement in today’s world. This fact-packed book is your roadmap to get growing today. Urban gardening techniques featured include: Container Gardening Raised Beds Indoor Edibles Balconies and Rooftops Hydroponics

Chemistry for Protection of the Environment 1985

Author : G. Alaerts,L. Pawlowski,W.J. Lacy

ISBN10 : 9780080874883

Publisher : Elsevier

Number of Pages : 795

Category : Science

Viewed : 1347

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Book Summary: The main theme of this symposium was the application of chemical methods for water and wastewater treatment and their effect on the environment. The participants represented many countries and many disciplines and, taken together, their papers provide a very interesting overview of the way in which chemical processes are used in different parts of the world. The contributions from the USA are mainly devoted to methods for reducing the environmental hazard of alternative energy sources such as oil shales and tar sands. A fresh interest in coal and lignite is also apparent in the papers from Canada and from western and eastern Europe. Many papers and discussions deal with the related technology of desulphurisation of coal and oil during combustion or in exhaust gases, much of the research in this area being inspired by the problems of acid rain and the damage to forests in the northern hemisphere.