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The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs

Author : R. H. Charles

ISBN10 : 1592445977

Publisher : Wipf and Stock Publishers

Number of Pages : 116

Category : Religion

Viewed : 546

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Book Summary: This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps (as most of these works have been housed in our most important libraries around the world), and other notations in the work. This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work. As a reproduction of a historical artifact, this work may contain missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and made generally available to the public. We appreciate your support of the preservation process, and thank you for being an important part of keeping this knowledge alive and relevant.

The Greek Versions of the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs

Author : R. H. Charles

ISBN10 : 1556357621

Publisher : Wipf and Stock Publishers

Number of Pages : 396

Category : Religion

Viewed : 1648

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Book Summary: R. H. Charles (1855-1931) was Professor of Biblical Greek at Trinity College Dublin (1898-1906), He was elected a fellow of the British Academy in 1906, and a fellow of Merton College, Oxford in 1910. In 1925 he was the first recipient of the British Academy Medal for Biblical Studies. Charles also received honorary degrees from the Universities of Belfast in 1923 and Oxford in 1928. His publications include: 'The Apocalypse of Baruch, ' 'The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, ' and 'The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English' (2 vols.)

The Forgotten Books Of Eden

Author : Rutherford H. Platt

ISBN10 : 3849621855

Publisher : Jazzybee Verlag

Number of Pages : 388

Category :

Viewed : 800

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Book Summary: This is the extended and annotated edition including * an extensive annotation of more than 5.000 words about the history and evolution of the book we call 'The Bible' * an interactive table-of-contents * perfect formatting for electronic reading devices This edition contains a selection of Apocrypha. Contents: The First Book Of Adam And Eve The Second Book Of Adam And Eve The Book Of The Secrets Of Enoch. The Psalms Of Solomon The Odes Of Solomon. The Letter Of Aristeas Fourth Book Of Maccabees The Story Of Ahikar The Testaments Of The Twelve Patriarchs Testament Of Reuben Testament Of Simeon Testament Of Levi The Testament Of Judah The Testament Of Issachar The Testament Of Zebulun The Testament Of Dan The Testament Of Naphtali The Testament Of Gad The Testament Of Asher The Testament Of Joseph The Testament Of Benjamin

Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs Collection

Author : Scriptural Research Institute

ISBN10 : 1989604919

Publisher : Scriptural Research Institute

Number of Pages : 99

Category : Religion

Viewed : 1349

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Book Summary: During the crusades, Latin translations of the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs began to circulate in Western Europe, which were considered to be authentic testaments written by the children of Jacob until the Protestant reformation. During the Protestant reformation the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs were generally been discredited as Christian era forgeries, and stopped being used by Catholics and Protestants. The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs continued to be viewed as authentic in orthodox countries, and were integrated into the Oskan Armenian Orthodox Bible in 1666. Scholarly analysis of the testaments in the 1800s led to the conclusion that the testaments began as Pharisee texts, written in Hebrew, sometime the before 200 AD, when they were expanded by the Christian monks on Mount Athos. Since the discovery of fragments of four of the testaments among the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Pharisee view has been generally discredited. The oldest fragments discovered so far date to between 135 and 37 BC, and are written in Aramaic, which make it unlikely that they were written by a Pharisee. Additionally, the contents of the testaments are no longer viewed as being consistent with the Pharisee's theology, as they include a number of references to Greek gods, making the testaments more likely to be a Sadducee text, or from another Jewish sect. A number of references within the testaments point to an origin in the Seleucid Empire. The testaments repeatedly reference the Book of Enoch, or the Watchers from the Book of Enoch, as well as the Book of Job, and Satan as an individual instead of a descriptive term, which is consistent with the Book of Job, the likely source is the Tobian Jews (Τουβιανοὺς Ιουδαίους) mentioned in 2nd Maccabees, that lived in Seleucid controlled regions. It is unclear where the Tobian Jews lived, however, according to Eusebius, writing circa 300 AD, in local lore Job lived in the Arabian town of Karnaia. The location of Karnaia is unknown today, however is believed to have once been in what is modern southern Syria, and would have been in the Seleucid Empire when the testaments were likely written. The original work appears to be an anti-Levitical text, which dismissed the Levitical priesthood, and pointed to an alternative priesthood, which is consistent with the division between the priesthood of Ezra and Tobiah referred to in the Septuagint's 1st Ezra.

A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Daniel

Author : R. H. Charles

ISBN10 : 1597526754

Publisher : Wipf and Stock Publishers

Number of Pages : 536

Category : Religion

Viewed : 342

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Book Summary: With the exception of Dr. Montgomery in his Commentary in the International Critical Commentary Series, all my forerunners in the study of Daniel have been handicapped in many respects owing to the lack of an Aramaic grammar which dealt with the historical development of the language. . . . Accordingly a large section of the Introduction is devoted to the grammatical development of Aramaic idioms, so far as these have any bearing on the Aramaic of our text. . . . Again I may remark that though many of the greatest Semitic scholars have edited Daniel, not one of them seems to have had a first hand knowldge of the characteristics of Apocalyptic outside Daniel. . . . In publishing this Commentary my chief claim is, so far as possible, to recover the oldest form of the text, and to interpret that text in conformity with the usages of Jewish Apocalyptic. --from the Preface

Philo, Josephus, and the Testaments on Sexuality

Author : William Loader

ISBN10 : 0802866417

Publisher : Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing

Number of Pages : 476

Category : Religion

Viewed : 596

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Book Summary: Philo, Josephus, and the Testaments on Sexuality is the fourth of five volumes by William Loader exploring attitudes toward sexuality in Judaism and Christianity during the Greco-Roman era. In this volume Loader examines three substantial and historically important sets of documents the writings of Philo of Alexandria, the histories of Josephus, and the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs. For each set of writings, he provides an in-depth introduction, detailed analysis highlighting each writer s position on a broad range of matters pertaining to sexuality, and a summary conclusion.

Testament of Judah

Author : Scriptural Research Institute

ISBN10 : 198960482X

Publisher : Scriptural Research Institute

Number of Pages : 24

Category : Religion

Viewed : 431

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Book Summary: The Testament of Judah, like the other Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, is considered to be a Jewish work that was added to by Christians in the Christian era. It is unclear when it comes from, however, fragments of the Testaments of Judah and and Naphtali have been found among the Dead Sea Scrolls in Hebrew, dating to between 37 BC and 44 AD. Given the number of references to primordial gods, it is unlikely to be the work of a Pharisee, and was likely translated into Hebrew from Aramaic or Greek. As it has some of the same anti-Levitical content as the Testament of Levi, it was likely a text written by the Tobian Jews mentioned in 2nd Maccabees, that lived in Seleucid controlled regions.

Testament of Simeon

Author : Scriptural Research Institute

ISBN10 : 198960479X

Publisher : Scriptural Research Institute

Number of Pages : 18

Category : Religion

Viewed : 682

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Book Summary: The Testament of Simeon, like the other Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, is considered to be a Jewish work that was added to by Christians in the Christian era. It is unclear when it comes from, however, fragments of the Testaments of Joseph and Levi have been found among the Dead Sea Scrolls in Aramaic, dating to between 135 and 37 BC, implying the rest of the Twelve were compiled at the same time. The Testament of Simeon also refers to the Watchers, an Aramaic Second Temple era term for the Giants from the Septuagint, and Nephilim from the Masoretic Texts, which implies it was written around the same time as the Books of Daniel and Enoch, which would date it to anywhere between 300 and 50 BC. In the early Christian era, many Testaments of the Patriarchs circulated in Jewish and Christian communities, the foremost being the Testaments of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. The other major testaments were grouped together as the Testaments of the Twelve, which included the Testaments of Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher, Joseph, and Benjamin. These testaments were widely accepted by the early Christian churches, and continue to form part of the Armenian Bible. The books were popular in Western Europe during the Middle Ages when they were generally considered authentic ancient Jewish texts. Critical analysis in the 16th century changed the view of Protestants and Catholics, as scholars at the time came to the belief that the texts were written in the early Christian era, likely in Greek. Subsequently, the texts fell out of favor in most parts of Europe. However, Hebrew fragments of the Testaments of the Patriarchs were discovered in the 20th century among the Dead Sea Scrolls, proving the texts were originally written in Aramaic and Hebrew. The current academic view is that there was a simpler Hebrew Jewish version that was then updated in the early Christian era by Greek speakers that added the Christian prophesies.

Second Temple Jewish “Paideia” in Context

Author : Jason M. Zurawski,Gabriele Boccaccini

ISBN10 : 3110546116

Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

Number of Pages : 314

Category : Religion

Viewed : 973

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Book Summary: Despite the impressive strides made in the past century in the understanding of Second Temple Jewish history and the strong scholarly interest in paideia within ancient Greek, Hellenistic, Roman, and late antique Christian cultures, the nature of Jewish paideia during the period has, until recently, received surprisingly little attention. The essays collected here were first offered for discussion at the Fifth Enoch Seminar Nangeroni Meeting, held in Naples, Italy, from June 30 – July 4, 2015, the purpose of which was to gain greater insight into the diversity of views of Jewish education during the period, both in Judea and Diaspora communities, by viewing them in light of their contemporary Greco-Roman backgrounds and Ancient Near Eastern influences. Together, they represent the broad array of approaches and specialties required to comprehend this complex and multi-faceted subject, and they demonstrate the fundamental importance of the topic for a fuller understanding of the period. The volume will be of particular interest to students and scholars of the history and culture of the Jewish people during the Hellenistic and Roman periods, ancient education, and Greek and Roman history.

Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs

Author : Robert Kugler

ISBN10 : 056762515X

Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing

Number of Pages : 128

Category : Religion

Viewed : 1372

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Book Summary: The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs is of especial interest to students of early Judaism and Christianity, though this importance is not always recognized. This collection preserves extra-biblical traditions about the sons of Jacob, it reflects a moral worldview of Jews and Christians around the turn of the era, and it casts light on its authors' eschatological imagination. Robert A. Kugler introduces the student to the Testaments' contents, their relationship to other texts of the era, textual witnesses and sources, and rehearses the debate regarding authorship, compositional history and purpose. He also examines the Testaments from the fresh perspective of rhetorical strategy, asking what sort of theological notions the Testaments would have conjured in the minds of early Jewish and Christian listeners or readers.

Testament of Zebulun

Author : Scriptural Research Institute

ISBN10 : 1989604846

Publisher : Scriptural Research Institute

Number of Pages : 16

Category : Religion

Viewed : 1959

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Book Summary: The Testament of Zebulun, like the other Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, is considered to be a Jewish work that was added to by Christians in the Christian era. It is unclear when it comes from, however, fragments of the Testaments of Joseph and Levi have been found among the Dead Sea Scrolls in Aramaic, dating to between 135 and 37 BC, implying the rest of the Twelve were compiled at the same time. As the Testament of Zebulun has some of the same anti-Levitical content as the Testament of Levi, it was likely a text written by the Tobian Jews (Τουβιανοὺς Ιουδαίους) mentioned in 2nd Maccabees, that lived in Seleucid controlled regions. In the early Christian era, many Testaments of the Patriarchs circulated in Jewish and Christian communities, the foremost being the Testaments of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. The other major testaments were grouped together as the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, which included the Testaments of Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher, Joseph, and Benjamin. These testaments were widely accepted by the early Christian churches, and continue to form part of the Armenian Bible. The books were popular in Western Europe during the Middle Ages when they were generally considered authentic ancient Jewish texts. Critical analysis in the 16th century changed the view of Protestants and Catholics, as scholars at the time came to the belief that the texts were written in the early Christian era, likely in Greek. Subsequently, the texts fell out of favor in most parts of Europe. However, Hebrew fragments of the Testaments of the Patriarchs were discovered in the 20th century among the Dead Sea Scrolls, proving the texts were originally written in Aramaic and Hebrew. The current academic view is that there was a simpler Hebrew Jewish version that was then updated in the early Christian era by Greek speakers that added the Christian prophesies.

Aristeas to Philocrates

Author : Moses Hadas

ISBN10 : 1556355068

Publisher : Wipf and Stock Publishers

Number of Pages : 244

Category : Religion

Viewed : 1079

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Book Summary: The work commonly known as the Letter of Aristeas presents an account of the genesis of the Septuagint, and incidentally reflects currents of religious thought at a significant period of history. The book is a work of conscious literary art, composed according to the canons of the Greek schools, and the exaggerations and inaccuracies that have marred its credit in the past are marks not of the author's ignorance or bad faith but of the genre to which it belongs. Considered against its historical and intellectual background, Aristeas to Philocrates is a document of first-class importance and a unique specimen of its kind in the literature of the period. Professor Hadas's edition studies the book from the point of view of its literary as well as religious affinities and significance. His introduction fixes the place of the book in the history of Greek literature as well as of the religious development of the Jews, and his running commentary similarly illustrates the text from both points of view. The translation is in straightforward English. The Greek text is that of H. St. J. Thackeray and the brief critical notes that accompany it are by Professor Hadas.

The Second Book of Adam and Eve

Author : Rutherford Platt

ISBN10 : 1105622290

Publisher : Lulu Press, Inc

Number of Pages : N.A

Category : Religion

Viewed : 1760

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Book Summary: It is considered by many scholars to be part of the "Pseudepigrapha", historical biblical works that are considered to be fiction. This stigma, prevented its inclusion in the compilation of the Holy Bible. Its a written history of what happened in the days of Adam and Eve after they were cast out of the garden. Considered to be pseudepigraphic by some, it carries significant meaning and insight into events of that time. Its simply an account handed down by word of mouth, from generation to generation, linking the time the first human life was created to the time it was finally written down. This version is the work of unknown Egyptians. The lack of historical allusion makes it difficult to date the writing, however, using other pseudepigraphical works as a reference, it was probably written a few hundred years before the birth of Christ. Parts of this version are found in the Jewish Talmud, and the Islamic Koran, showing what a vital role it played in the original literature of human wisdom.

The Book of Enoch

Author : N.A

ISBN10 : 0486120996

Publisher : Courier Corporation

Number of Pages : 160

Category : Religion

Viewed : 365

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Book Summary: An apocryphal work from the second century B.C., this volume influenced early Christians, particularly the Gnostics, and introduced such concepts as fallen angels, resurrection, and last judgment.

The Lost Apocrypha of the Old Testament

Author : Montague Rhodes James

ISBN10 : 1556352891

Publisher : Wipf and Stock Publishers

Number of Pages : 124

Category : Religion

Viewed : 1764

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Book Summary: Collected and Translated by Montague Rhodes James. There are many ancient, lost books relating to the Bible and this work covers the ones that are most hard to find, dating between 100 BCE and 100 CE. In many cases we do not have the full works, but have various sections and fragments. The author, Montague James, used quotations found mostly in the works of the Greek Ante-Nicene Fathers like Origen, Hippolytus and Clement of Alexandria to piece together what we are missing. He also uses important lists compiled from Greek, Latin and other languages in order to reveal what we know of other missing books that would, in some cases, otherwise be unheard of. This important piece of scholarship should be part of anyone's library who is seriously researching lost and ancient texts.

The Origin of Paul's Religion

Author : J. Gresham Machen

ISBN10 :

Publisher : Good Press

Number of Pages : 399

Category : Fiction

Viewed : 492

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Book Summary: "The Origin of Paul's Religion" by J. Gresham Machen. Published by Good Press. Good Press publishes a wide range of titles that encompasses every genre. From well-known classics & literary fiction and non-fiction to forgotten−or yet undiscovered gems−of world literature, we issue the books that need to be read. Each Good Press edition has been meticulously edited and formatted to boost readability for all e-readers and devices. Our goal is to produce eBooks that are user-friendly and accessible to everyone in a high-quality digital format.

The Sacred Writings of The Twelve Patriarchs (Annotated Edition)

Author : The Twelve Patriarchs

ISBN10 : 3849621626

Publisher : Jazzybee Verlag

Number of Pages : 90

Category :

Viewed : 1604

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Book Summary: "The Sacred Writings Of ..." provides you with the essential works among the Christian writings. The volumes cover the beginning of Christianity until medieval times. This volume is accurately annotated, including * an annotation about the Patriarch and Patriarchate Contents: Patriarch and Patriarchate I.-The Testament of Reuben Concerning Thoughts II.-The Testament of Simeon Concerning Envy. III.-The Testament of Levi Concerning the Priesthood and Arrogance. IV.-The Testament of Judah Concerning Fortitude, and Love of Money, and Fornication. V.-The Testament of Issachar Concerning Simplicity. VI.-The Testament of Zebulun Concerning Compassion and Mercy. VII.-The Testament of Dan Concerning Anger and Lying. VIII.-The Testament of Naphtali Concerning Natural Goodness. IX.-The Testament of Gad Concerning Hatred. X.-The Testament of Asher Concerning Two Faces of Vice and Virtue. XI.-The Testament of Joseph Concerning Sobriety. XII.-The Testament of Benjamin Concerning a Pure Mind.

The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ: Volume 3.ii and Index

Author : Emil Schürer,Fergus Millar,Geza Vermes

ISBN10 : 1472558286

Publisher : A&C Black

Number of Pages : 336

Category : Religion

Viewed : 1071

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Book Summary: Emil Schürer's Geschichte des judischen Volkes im Zeitalter Jesu Christi, originally published in German between 1874 and 1909 and in English between 1885 and 1891, is a critical presentation of Jewish history, institutions, and literature from 175 B.C. to A.D. 135. It has rendered invaluable services to scholars for nearly a century. The present work offers a fresh translation and a revision of the entire subject-matter. The bibliographies have been rejuvenated and supplemented; the sources are presented according to the latest scholarly editions; and all the new archaeological, epigraphical, numismatic and literary evidence, including the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Bar Kokhba documents, has been introduced into the survey. Account has also been taken of the progress in historical research, both in the classical and Jewish fields. This work reminds students of the profound debt owed to nineteenth-century learning, setting it within a wider framework of contemporary knowledge, and provides a foundation on which future historians of Judaism in the age of Jesus may build.

The Great Controversy

Author : Tom de Bruin

ISBN10 : 3647540358

Publisher : Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht

Number of Pages : 264

Category : Religion

Viewed : 1226

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Book Summary: The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (T12P), one of the longest texts of the so-called “Old Testament Pseudepigrapha,” presents the fictitious farewell speeches that the twelve sons of Jacob held on their respective deathbeds. Tom de Bruin examines these twelve monologues as literary products in order to understand the function of the text for the setting in which it was composed. He approaches T12P from three directions: an analysis of the paraenetic parts, a discussion of the anthropology, and a comparative examination of other contemporaneous works documenting a world-view similar to T12P.These three approaches merge into a detailed discussion about the reasoning behind the admonition in T12P, and identifies the fundamental message of the text, namely that each person stands between the forces of good and evil and that this person is called to constantly decide which way to follow. Though T12P is still familiar with the apocalyptic origin and plays with the cosmological implications of this 'great controversy', the text clearly puts the emphasis on the battle inside each individual. It is thereby an important witness for reinterpreting and reapplying apocalyptic traditions through ethicizing them and focusing on the individual. Such an individualistic application of the 'great controversy' theme can be found in a number of other (mostly Christian) works, revealing a similar understanding of mankind’s existence and development as in T12P. The analysis of the ethical reappropriation of apocalyptic traditions in T12P provides important insights into the foundations of early Christian ethics, ancient anthropology, and the Jewish and Christian understanding of the struggle between good and evil.

The Jewish Teachers of Jesus, James, and Jude

Author : David A. deSilva

ISBN10 : 0199976988

Publisher : Oxford University Press

Number of Pages : 360

Category : Religion

Viewed : 1207

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Book Summary: Jews have sometimes been reluctant to claim Jesus as one of their own; Christians have often been reluctant to acknowledge the degree to which Jesus' message and mission were at home amidst, and shaped by, the Judaism(s) of the Second Temple Period. In The Jewish Teachers of Jesus, James, and Jude David deSilva introduces readers to the ancient Jewish writings known as the Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha and examines their formative impact on the teachings and mission of Jesus and his half-brothers, James and Jude. Knowledge of this literature, deSilva argues, helps to bridge the perceived gap between Jesus and Judaism when Judaism is understood only in terms of the Hebrew Bible (or ''Old Testament''), and not as a living, growing body of faith and practice. Where our understanding of early Judaism is limited to the religion reflected in the Hebrew Bible, Jesus will appear more as an outsider speaking ''against'' Judaism and introducing more that is novel. Where our understanding of early Judaism is also informed by the Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha, we will see Jesus and his half-brothers speaking and interacting more fully within Judaism. By engaging critical issues in this comparative study, deSilva produces a portrait of Jesus that is fully at home in Roman Judea and Galilee, and perhaps an explanation for why these extra-biblical Jewish texts continued to be preserved in Christian circles.